Acute effects of self-paced walking on urges to smoke during temporary smoking abstinence.
ABSTRACT Recent research highlights the need to extend our understanding of how exercise may aid smoking cessation, through exploration of different modes, intensity and duration of exercise.
The purpose of the study was to examine the effects of a 1-mile self-paced walk on different measures of urges to smoke following temporary smoking abstinence.
In a within-subject counterbalanced design, following 15 h of smoking abstinence, participants (N=15) exercised or sat passively on separate days. A single-item measure of strength of desire to smoke was administered during, immediately post, and at 10 and 20 min post-treatment. The two-factor Questionnaire for Smoking Urges, involving intention and desire to engage in smoking behaviour which is anticipated as pleasant, enjoyable and satisfying (desire-behave), and anticipation of relief from negative affect through smoking (desire-affect relief), was administered before and 20 min post-treatment.
A two-way repeated-measures MANOVA revealed a significant overall interaction effect for time by condition for strength of desire to smoke, and the two QSU scales. Two-way repeated-measures univariate ANOVAs revealed significant interaction effects for time by condition for each of the three urges to smoke measures. Planned contrasts revealed that exercise reduced cigarette cravings for up to 20 min after exercise, in comparison with the control condition. ANCOVAs revealed mixed support for independent effects of exercise on all measures of urges to smoke.
A self-paced walk, at a low intensity, lasting 15-20 min can have a rapid and measurable positive effect on both single and multi-item measures of urges to smoke, lasting at least 20 min, during temporary smoking abstinence.
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ABSTRACT: Rationale Exercise has been shown to attenuate cigarette cravings during temporary smoking abstinence; however, the mechanisms of action are not clearly understood. Objectives The objectives of the study were to compare the effects of three exercise intensities on desire to smoke and explore potential neurobiological mediators of desire to smoke. Methods Following overnight abstinence, 40 participants (25 males, 18-59 years) completed three 15 min sessions of light-, moderate-, or vigorous-intensity exercise on a cycle ergometer in a randomized crossover design. Ratings of desire to smoke were self-reported pre- and post-exercise and heart rate variability was measured throughout. Saliva and blood were analyzed for cortisol and noradrenaline in a sub-sample. Results Exercise influenced desire to smoke (F [2, 91] = 7.94, p F [8, 72] = 2.23, p = 0.03), with a bias in noradrenaline occurring between light and vigorous conditions (adjusted mean difference [SE] = 2850 ng/ml , p Conclusions These findings support the use of vigorous exercise to reduce cigarette cravings, showing potential alterations in a noradrenergic marker.Psychopharmacology 09/2014; 232(6). DOI:10.1007/s00213-014-3742-8 · 3.99 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Smokers trying to quit encounter many challenges including nicotine withdrawal symptoms, cigarette craving, increased stress and negative mood and concern regarding weight gain. These phenomena make it difficult to successfully quit smoking. Studies in non-smoking populations show that yoga reduces stress and negative mood and improves weight control. By increasing mindfulness we anticipate that yoga may also improve smokers’ ability to cope with the negative symptoms associated with quitting. Yoga may also improve cognitive deliberation which is needed to make effective choices and avoid smoking in tempting situations. The BreathEasy study is a rigorous, randomized controlled clinical trial examining the efficacy of Iyengar yoga as a complementary therapy to cognitive-behavioral therapy for smoking cessation. All participants are given an 8-week program of smoking cessation classes, and are randomized to either twice weekly yoga (Yoga) or twice-weekly health and wellness classes which serve as a control for contact and participant burden (CTL). Assessments are conducted at baseline, 8 weeks, 3, 6, and 12 months follow up. The primary outcome is prolonged abstinence using an intention-to-treat approach. Multiple internal and external audits using blind data collection are employed to ensure treatment fidelity and reliability of study results. To understand why yoga may be more effective than CTL, we will examine mechanisms of action (i.e., mediators) underlying intervention efficacy. We will examine maintenance of yoga practice and smoking status at each follow up. Focus groups and interviews will be used to enrich our understanding of the relationship of yoga practice and smoking abstinence.Contemporary Clinical Trials 07/2014; 38(2). DOI:10.1016/j.cct.2014.06.003 · 1.99 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: This is a PDF file of an unedited manuscript that has been accepted for publication. As a service to our customers we are providing this early version of the manuscript. The manuscript will undergo copyediting, typesetting, and review of the resulting proof before it is published in its final form. Please note that during the production process errors may be discovered which could affect the content, and all legal disclaimers that apply to the journal pertain.Drug and Alcohol Dependence 09/2014; DOI:10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2014.09.012 · 3.28 Impact Factor