Acute effects of self-paced walking on urges to smoke during temporary smoking abstinence.
ABSTRACT Recent research highlights the need to extend our understanding of how exercise may aid smoking cessation, through exploration of different modes, intensity and duration of exercise.
The purpose of the study was to examine the effects of a 1-mile self-paced walk on different measures of urges to smoke following temporary smoking abstinence.
In a within-subject counterbalanced design, following 15 h of smoking abstinence, participants (N=15) exercised or sat passively on separate days. A single-item measure of strength of desire to smoke was administered during, immediately post, and at 10 and 20 min post-treatment. The two-factor Questionnaire for Smoking Urges, involving intention and desire to engage in smoking behaviour which is anticipated as pleasant, enjoyable and satisfying (desire-behave), and anticipation of relief from negative affect through smoking (desire-affect relief), was administered before and 20 min post-treatment.
A two-way repeated-measures MANOVA revealed a significant overall interaction effect for time by condition for strength of desire to smoke, and the two QSU scales. Two-way repeated-measures univariate ANOVAs revealed significant interaction effects for time by condition for each of the three urges to smoke measures. Planned contrasts revealed that exercise reduced cigarette cravings for up to 20 min after exercise, in comparison with the control condition. ANCOVAs revealed mixed support for independent effects of exercise on all measures of urges to smoke.
A self-paced walk, at a low intensity, lasting 15-20 min can have a rapid and measurable positive effect on both single and multi-item measures of urges to smoke, lasting at least 20 min, during temporary smoking abstinence.
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- "A random effects model was used as significant heterogeneity was indicated (I 2 094 %, p<0.00001). Sensitivity analyses revealed that, based on effect size, two studies were responsible for the heterogeneity (Ussher et al. 2001; Taylor et al. 2005), both of which reported large reductions in strength of desire to smoke. When excluding these two studies from the analysis, the I 2 statistic was reduced from 94 to 0 % (p00.63). "
ABSTRACT: Smoking cessation is associated with cigarette cravings and tobacco withdrawal symptoms (TWS), and exercise appears to ameliorate many of these negative effects. A number of studies have examined the relationships between exercise, cigarette cravings, and TWS. The objectives of this study were (a) to review and update the literature examining the effects of short bouts of exercise on cigarette cravings, TWS, affect, and smoking behaviour and (b) to conduct meta-analyses of the effect of exercise on cigarette cravings. A systematic review of all studies published between January 2006 and June 2011 was conducted. Fifteen new studies were identified, 12 of which found a positive effect of exercise on cigarette cravings. The magnitude of statistically significant effect sizes for 'desire to smoke' and 'strength of desire to smoke' ranged from 0.4 to 1.98 in favour of exercise compared to passive control conditions, and peaked either during or soon after treatment. Effects were found up to 30 min post-exercise. Cigarette cravings were reduced following exercise with a wide range of intensities from isometric exercise and yoga to activity as high as 80-85 % heart rate reserve. Meta-analyses revealed weighted mean differences of -1.90 and -2.41 in 'desire to smoke' and 'strength of desire to smoke' outcomes, respectively. Measures of TWS and negative affect were reduced following light-moderate intensity exercise, but increased during vigorous exercise. Exercise can have a positive effect on cigarette cravings and TWS. However, the most effective exercise intensity to reduce cravings and the underlying mechanisms associated with this effect remain unclear.Psychopharmacology 05/2012; 222(1):1-15. DOI:10.1007/s00213-012-2731-z · 3.99 Impact Factor
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- "The present findings are generally consistent with the hypothesis that exercise may reduce the affective motivation for smoking and thus may serve as valuable coping tool during smoking cessation (Taylor et al., 2005). However, only positive affect change was associated with reduced craving, and mood changes did not specifically mediate the effects of exercise on "
ABSTRACT: Recent studies have examined the effects of physical activity on craving to smoke and smoking withdrawal. The current study was designed to compare and contrast the effects of 2 different forms of physical activity on general and cue-elicited craving to smoke. Following 1-hr nicotine abstinence, 76 daily smokers were randomly assigned to engage in a 30-min bout of cardiovascular exercise (CE; brisk walk on a treadmill), Hatha yoga (HY), or a nonactivity control condition. Participants completed measures of craving and mood, and a smoking cue reactivity assessment, before, immediately following, and approximately 20 min after the physical activity or control conditions. Compared with the control condition, participants in each of the physical activity groups reported a decrease in craving to smoke, an increase in positive affect, and a decrease in negative affect. In addition, craving in response to smoking cues was specifically reduced among those who engaged in CE, whereas those who engaged in HY reported a general decrease in cravings. This study provides further support for the use of exercise bouts for attenuating cigarette cravings during temporary nicotine abstinence. Results also suggest that CE can attenuate cravings in response to smoking cues. There are several areas for further research that may improve integration of exercise within smoking cessation treatment.Nicotine & Tobacco Research 08/2011; 13(11):1140-8. DOI:10.1093/ntr/ntr163 · 2.81 Impact Factor
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- "It was shown that during and immediately after exercise, common withdrawal symptoms and desire to smoke were rated lower, relative to baseline ratings. These results are consistent with previous research concerning exercise and smoking (Daniel et al. 2004; Taylor et al. 2005; Ussher et al. 2001). By contrast, cognitive distraction alone did not produce differences in common withdrawal symptoms or ratings of desire to smoke. "
ABSTRACT: Moderate-intensity exercise has been shown to reduce common smoking withdrawal symptoms and desire to smoke in acutely abstinent smokers. The aim of the present study was to determine if this was caused by distraction. A secondary aim was to determine whether exercise-related changes in affect were related to a reduction in symptoms. Forty 'sedentary' participants who had smoked at least 10 or more cigarettes per day for at least 3 years were assigned randomly to one of two groups. They completed either 10 minutes of moderate-intensity exercise on a stationary bicycle ergometer or 10 minutes of a cognitive distraction task (paced visual serial addition task, PVSAT) after 11-15 hours of smoking abstinence. Participants rated smoking withdrawal symptoms and desire to smoke using standard scales at 10, 5 and 0 minutes before the experimental intervention, then at 5 and 10 minutes after the start of the intervention and 5 and 10 minutes after its completion. Significant group x time interactions were observed for ratings of desire to smoke and several withdrawal symptoms (irritability, depression, restlessness, difficulty concentrating and stress). There was a reduction in ratings during and immediately following exercise that was not observed with cognitive distraction. Also it was found the effects were not mediated by changes in affect observed in the exercise condition. A brief bout of moderate-intensity exercise can lead to a rapid reduction in desire to smoke and withdrawal discomfort, which is not due to the distracting effect of exercise or the effects of mood. These findings support recommendations to smokers to use exercise as a means of helping cope with the difficulties encountered when they try to stop.Addiction 09/2006; 101(8):1187-92. DOI:10.1111/j.1360-0443.2006.01457.x · 4.60 Impact Factor