Hypothalamic K(ATP) channels control hepatic glucose production.
ABSTRACT Obesity is the driving force behind the worldwide increase in the prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Hyperglycaemia is a hallmark of diabetes and is largely due to increased hepatic gluconeogenesis. The medial hypothalamus is a major integrator of nutritional and hormonal signals, which play pivotal roles not only in the regulation of energy balance but also in the modulation of liver glucose output. Bidirectional changes in hypothalamic insulin signalling therefore result in parallel changes in both energy balance and glucose metabolism. Here we show that activation of ATP-sensitive potassium (K(ATP)) channels in the mediobasal hypothalamus is sufficient to lower blood glucose levels through inhibition of hepatic gluconeogenesis. Finally, the infusion of a K(ATP) blocker within the mediobasal hypothalamus, or the surgical resection of the hepatic branch of the vagus nerve, negates the effects of central insulin and halves the effects of systemic insulin on hepatic glucose production. Consistent with these results, mice lacking the SUR1 subunit of the K(ATP) channel are resistant to the inhibitory action of insulin on gluconeogenesis. These findings suggest that activation of hypothalamic K(ATP) channels normally restrains hepatic gluconeogenesis, and that any alteration within this central nervous system/liver circuit can contribute to diabetic hyperglycaemia.
SourceAvailable from: Kazuaki Yoshioka02/2005; 16:13. DOI:10.14748/bmr.v16.91
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ABSTRACT: Recent insights into the neural circuits controlling energy balance and glucose homeostasis have rekindled the hope for development of novel treatments for obesity and diabetes. However, many therapies contribute relatively modest beneficial gains with accompanying side effects, and the mechanisms of action for other interventions remain undefined. This Review summarizes current knowledge linking the neural circuits regulating energy and glucose balance with current and potential pharmacotherapeutic and surgical interventions for the treatment of obesity and diabetes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.Cell 03/2015; 161(1):133-145. DOI:10.1016/j.cell.2015.02.023 · 33.12 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Glucose is the most important energy substrate for the maintenance of tissues function. The liver plays an essential role in the control of glucose production, since it is able to synthesize, store, and release glucose into the circulation under different situations. Hormones like insulin and catecholamines influence hepatic glucose production (HGP), but little is known about the role of the central actions of physiological doses of insulin in modulating HGP via the autonomic nervous system in nonanesthetized rats especially in SHR where we see a high degree of insulin resistance and metabolic dysfunction. Wistar and SHR received ICV injection of insulin (100 nU/μL) and hepatic venous glucose concentration (HVGC) was monitored for 30 min, as an indirect measure of HGP. At 10 min after insulin injection, HVGC decreased by 27% in Wistar rats, with a negligible change (3%) in SHR. Pretreatment with atropine totally blocked the reduction in HVGC, while pretreatment with propranolol and phentolamine induced a decrease of 8% in HVGC after ICV insulin injection in Wistar. Intracarotid infusion of insulin caused a significant increase in subdiaphragmatic vagus nerve (SVN) activity in Wistar (12 ± 2%), with negligible effects on the lumbar splanchnic sympathetic nerve (LSSN) activity (-6 ± 3%). No change was observed in SVN (-2 ± 2%) and LSSN activities (2 ± 3%) in SHR after ICA insulin infusion. Taken together, these results show, in nonanesthetized animals, the importance of the parasympathetic nervous system in controlling HVGC, and subdiaphragmatic nerve activity following central administration of insulin; a mechanism that is impaired in the SHR. © 2015 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American Physiological Society and The Physiological Society.05/2015; 3(5). DOI:10.14814/phy2.12381