This study was undertaken to report on the benign gynecologic conditions occurring among women with an intact uterus at enrollment in the Breast Cancer Prevention Trial of the National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project.
The incidence rates of several benign gynecologic conditions were determined and risks were compared among women receiving tamoxifen and those receiving placebo, based on risk ratios (RRs) with 95% CIs. Comparisons included stratification by menopausal status, body mass index, and history of estrogen use.
Compared with women taking placebo, premenopausal women taking tamoxifen had a greater incidence of endometrial polyps (RR = 1.9, 95% CI = 1.55-2.41), leiomyomas (RR = 1.3, 95% CI = 1.14-1.55), endometriosis (RR = 1.9, 95% CI = 1.35-2.70), ovarian cysts (RR = 1.5, 95% CI = 1.20-1.78), and gynecologic surgical procedures, including hysterectomy (RR = 1.6, 95% CI = 1.29-1.88). Postmenopausal women taking tamoxifen also had an increased incidence of endometrial polyps (RR = 2.4, 95% CI = 1.76-3.24), leiomyomas (RR = 1.4, 95% CI = 1.04-1.80), endometriosis (RR = 1.9, 95% CI = 1.29-5.58), and gynecologic surgical procedures, including hysterectomy (RR = 2.2, 95% CI = 1.60-3.13), compared with women taking placebo. All women taking tamoxifen also had an increased incidence of simple endometrial hyperplasia without atypia (overall RR = 2.06, 95% CI = 1.64-2.60) compared with those taking placebo.
Our results strongly support the estrogen agonist role of tamoxifen as the causative factor for the increased risk of endometrial polyps, leiomyomas, endometriosis, and endometrial hyperplasia among women taking this agent.
"The use of estrogen agonists is associated with an increased incidence of fibroid tumors , and growth hormone appears to act synergistically with estradiol in affecting the growth of uterine fibroid tumors. Some studies have shown increased estrogen receptor mRNA in fibroids compared with normal myometrium . "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Introduction. Uterine fibroid tumors (uterine leiomyomas) are the most common benign uterine tumors. The incidence of uterine fibroid tumors increases in older women and may occur in more than 30% of women aged 40 to 60. Many uterine fibroid tumors are asymptomatic and are diagnosed incidentally. Case Presentation. A 44-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital with general weakness, dyspepsia, abdominal distension, and a palpable abdominal mass. An abdominal computed tomography scan showed a huge tumor mass in the abdomen which was compressing the intestine and urinary bladder. Gastroduodenal endoscopic and biopsy results showed a Borrmann type IV gastric adenocarcinoma. The patient was diagnosed with gastric cancer with disseminated peritoneal carcinomatosis. She underwent a hysterectomy with both salphingo-oophorectomy and bypass gastrojejunostomy. Simultaneous uterine fibroid tumor with other malignancies is generally observed without resection. But in this case, a surgical resection was required to resolve an intestinal obstruction and to exclude the possibility of a metastatic tumor. Conclusion. When a large pelvic or ovarian mass is detected in gastrointestinal malignancy patients, physicians try to exclude the presence of a Krukenberg tumor. If the tumors cause certain symptoms, surgical resection is recommended to resolve symptoms and to exclude a metastatic tumor.
"A study of premenopausal women undergoing operative hysteroscopy found a low rate of hyperplasia and no cancer, but a high rate (about 75%) of endometrial polyps (Machtinger et al., 2005). The prevalence of endometrial polyps also has been examined in premenopausal women with abnormal bleeding (Farquhar et al., 1999; DeWaay et al., 2002), perimenopausal women (Goldstein et al., 2002), infertile women undergoing IVF (Hinckley and Milki, 2004; Shokeir et al., 2004; de Sa Rosa e Silva et al., 2005) and a placebo group in a breast cancer trial (Chalas et al., 2005). Prevalence varied by study, ranging from 2 to 32%. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Progesterone receptor modulators (PRMs) have been used for contraceptive research, as well as for treatment of fibroids, endometriosis and heavy or irregular menstrual bleeding. Long-term treatment with these compounds results in changes to the endometrium resulting in potential confusion in trying to characterize endometrial biopsies. A meeting was held to discuss the properties of PRMs, the effects of perturbed hormonal control of the endometrium and the need for further understanding of the biology of progesterone receptor action to facilitate the development of new PRMs. A panel of pathologists was convened to evaluate endometrial changes associated with a minimum of three months of chronic treatment with PRMs. Four different agents were used in the treatment regimens but the pathologists were blinded to treatment regimen or agent. The panel agreed that the endometrial biopsies did not fit into a classification of either proliferative or secretory endometrium but exhibited an unusual architecture that could be characterized as glandular dilatation. There was little evidence of mitosis, consistent with a proposed anti-proliferative effect of PRMs. The panel concluded that the biopsies did not reveal evidence of safety concern and that pathologists and investigators familiar with endometrial effects of chronic PRM exposure should consider working with pharmaceutical companies and regulatory agencies to develop standard descriptions of PRM-associated endometrial changes as well as the types of histologic changes that would signal a need for intervention.
Human Reproduction Update 09/2007; 13(6):567-80. DOI:10.1093/humupd/dmm023 · 10.17 Impact Factor
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