Benign gynecologic conditions among participants in the Breast Cancer Prevention Trial
ABSTRACT This study was undertaken to report on the benign gynecologic conditions occurring among women with an intact uterus at enrollment in the Breast Cancer Prevention Trial of the National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project.
The incidence rates of several benign gynecologic conditions were determined and risks were compared among women receiving tamoxifen and those receiving placebo, based on risk ratios (RRs) with 95% CIs. Comparisons included stratification by menopausal status, body mass index, and history of estrogen use.
Compared with women taking placebo, premenopausal women taking tamoxifen had a greater incidence of endometrial polyps (RR = 1.9, 95% CI = 1.55-2.41), leiomyomas (RR = 1.3, 95% CI = 1.14-1.55), endometriosis (RR = 1.9, 95% CI = 1.35-2.70), ovarian cysts (RR = 1.5, 95% CI = 1.20-1.78), and gynecologic surgical procedures, including hysterectomy (RR = 1.6, 95% CI = 1.29-1.88). Postmenopausal women taking tamoxifen also had an increased incidence of endometrial polyps (RR = 2.4, 95% CI = 1.76-3.24), leiomyomas (RR = 1.4, 95% CI = 1.04-1.80), endometriosis (RR = 1.9, 95% CI = 1.29-5.58), and gynecologic surgical procedures, including hysterectomy (RR = 2.2, 95% CI = 1.60-3.13), compared with women taking placebo. All women taking tamoxifen also had an increased incidence of simple endometrial hyperplasia without atypia (overall RR = 2.06, 95% CI = 1.64-2.60) compared with those taking placebo.
Our results strongly support the estrogen agonist role of tamoxifen as the causative factor for the increased risk of endometrial polyps, leiomyomas, endometriosis, and endometrial hyperplasia among women taking this agent.
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ABSTRACT: Progesterone receptor modulators (PRMs) have been used for contraceptive research, as well as for treatment of fibroids, endometriosis and heavy or irregular menstrual bleeding. Long-term treatment with these compounds results in changes to the endometrium resulting in potential confusion in trying to characterize endometrial biopsies. A meeting was held to discuss the properties of PRMs, the effects of perturbed hormonal control of the endometrium and the need for further understanding of the biology of progesterone receptor action to facilitate the development of new PRMs. A panel of pathologists was convened to evaluate endometrial changes associated with a minimum of three months of chronic treatment with PRMs. Four different agents were used in the treatment regimens but the pathologists were blinded to treatment regimen or agent. The panel agreed that the endometrial biopsies did not fit into a classification of either proliferative or secretory endometrium but exhibited an unusual architecture that could be characterized as glandular dilatation. There was little evidence of mitosis, consistent with a proposed anti-proliferative effect of PRMs. The panel concluded that the biopsies did not reveal evidence of safety concern and that pathologists and investigators familiar with endometrial effects of chronic PRM exposure should consider working with pharmaceutical companies and regulatory agencies to develop standard descriptions of PRM-associated endometrial changes as well as the types of histologic changes that would signal a need for intervention.Human Reproduction Update 09/2007; 13(6):567-80. DOI:10.1093/humupd/dmm023 · 8.66 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: To determine whether low-dose tamoxifen and fenretinide have a synergistic effect on surrogate biomarkers, including circulating insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) and mammographic density, in premenopausal women at risk for breast cancer and to study drug safety. Premenopausal women (n = 235) were randomly assigned in a double-blind four-arm trial to receive tamoxifen 5 mg/d, fenretinide 200 mg/d, both agents, or placebo for 2 years. The present analysis refers to preliminary data on safety, IGF-I, and breast cancer events. Patients were included if they had an excised ductal carcinoma-in-situ (57%), lobular carcinoma-in-situ (13%), minimal invasive breast cancer (7%), or a 5-year Gail risk > or = 1.3% (23%). After a median follow-up of 40 months, there was a reduction of 13%, 2%, 20%, and 1% in IGF-I levels for patients on tamoxifen, fenretinide, tamoxifen plus fenretinide, and placebo, respectively. Recruitment was stopped based on the lack of an interaction on IGF-I levels, which was a primary end point for the study. Thirty-six patients have dropped out of the study, 17 because of adverse events and 19 for various other reasons. One stage I endometrial cancer occurred in a patient on fenretinide, and one optic nerve ischemia and one deep venous thrombosis occurred on tamoxifen. There was no difference in menopausal symptoms, endometrial thickness, polyps, or ovarian cysts among treatment arms. To date, 24 breast cancers have been observed, without differences among arms. The combination of low-dose tamoxifen and fenretinide is safe but not synergistic in lowering IGF-I levels in premenopausal women. The clinical implications require further follow-up.Journal of Clinical Oncology 01/2006; 24(1):129-35. DOI:10.1200/JCO.2005.02.9934 · 17.88 Impact Factor