The vaccine candidate Vibrio cholerae 638 is protective against cholera in healthy volunteers.
ABSTRACT Vibrio cholerae 638 is a living candidate cholera vaccine strain attenuated by deletion of the CTXPhi prophage from C7258 (O1, El Tor Ogawa) and by insertion of the Clostridium thermocellum endoglucanase A gene into the hemagglutinin/protease coding sequence. This vaccine candidate was previously found to be well tolerated and immunogenic in volunteers. This article reports a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial conducted to test short-term protection conferred by 638 against subsequent V. cholerae infection and disease in volunteers in Cuba. A total of 45 subjects were enrolled and assigned to receive vaccine or placebo. The vaccine contained 10(9) CFU of freshly harvested 638 buffered with 1.3% NaHCO(3), while the placebo was buffer alone. After vaccine but not after placebo intake, 96% of volunteers had at least a fourfold increase in vibriocidal antibody titers, and 50% showed a doubling of at least the lipopolysaccharide-specific immunoglobulin A titers in serum. At 1 month after vaccination, five volunteers from the vaccine group and five from the placebo group underwent an exploratory challenge study with 10(9) CFU of DeltaCTXPhi attenuated mutant strain V. cholerae 81. Only two volunteers from the vaccine group shed strain 81 in their feces, but none of them experienced diarrhea; in the placebo group, all volunteers excreted the challenge strain, and three had reactogenic diarrhea. An additional 12 vaccinees and 9 placebo recipients underwent challenge with 7 x 10(5) CFU of virulent strain V. cholerae 3008 freshly harvested from a brain heart infusion agar plate and buffered with 1.3% NaHCO(3). Three volunteers (25%) from the vaccine group and all from the placebo group shed the challenge agent in their feces. None of the 12 vaccinees but 7 volunteers from the placebo group had diarrhea, and 2 of the latter exhibited severe cholera (>5,000 g of diarrheal stool). These results indicate that at 1 month after ingestion of a single oral dose (10(9) CFU) of strain 638, volunteers remained protected against cholera infection and disease provoked by the wild-type challenge agent V. cholerae 3008. We recommend that additional vaccine lots of 638 be prepared under good manufacturing practices for further evaluation.
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ABSTRACT: Cholera vaccine candidate Peru-15 was derived from a Vibrio cholerae O1 El Tor Inaba strain by deleting the cholera toxin genetic element, introducing the gene encoding cholera toxin B subunit into recA, and screening for nonmotility. In a controlled study, Peru-15 (2 x 10(8) cfu) was administered to 11 volunteers. No vaccinee developed diarrhea, and 10 of 11 had > 4-fold rises in vibriocidal antibody titers. One month later, 5 vaccinees and 5 control volunteers were challenged with wild type V. cholerae O1. Four of 5 controls developed diarrhea (mean, 1.9 L). Two Peru-15 vaccinees developed diarrhea, 1 with < 0.3 L and 1 with approximately 1.0 L; this latter volunteer had not developed a significant vibriocidal immune response to vaccination. Peru-15 shows promise as a single-dose, oral cholera vaccine that is safe, immunogenic, and protective.The Journal of Infectious Diseases 10/1995; 172(4):1126-9. · 6.41 Impact Factor
Article: Randomized, controlled human challenge study of the safety, immunogenicity, and protective efficacy of a single dose of Peru-15, a live attenuated oral cholera vaccine.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Peru-15 is a live attenuated oral vaccine derived from a Vibrio cholerae O1 El Tor Inaba strain by a series of deletions and modifications, including deletion of the entire CT genetic element. Peru-15 is also a stable, motility-defective strain and is unable to recombine with homologous DNA. We wished to determine whether a single oral dose of Peru-15 was safe and immunogenic and whether it would provide significant protection against moderate and severe diarrhea in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled human volunteer cholera challenge model. A total of 59 volunteers were randomly allocated to groups to receive either 2 x 10(8) CFU of reconstituted, lyophilized Peru-15 vaccine diluted in CeraVacx buffer or placebo (CeraVacx buffer alone). Approximately 3 months after vaccination, 36 of these volunteers were challenged with approximately 10(5) CFU of virulent V. cholerae O1 El Tor Inaba strain N16961, prepared from a standardized frozen inoculum. Among vaccinees, 98% showed at least a fourfold increase in vibriocidal antibody titers. After challenge, 5 (42%) of the 12 placebo recipients and none (0%) of the 24 vaccinees had moderate or severe diarrhea (> or = 3,000 g of diarrheal stool) (P = 0.002; protective efficacy, 100%; lower one-sided 95% confidence limit, 75%). A total of 7 (58%) of the 12 placebo recipients and 1 (4%) of the 24 vaccinees had any diarrhea (P < 0.001; protective efficacy, 93%; lower one-sided 95% confidence limit, 62%). The total number of diarrheal stools, weight of diarrheal stools, incidence of fever, and peak stool V. cholerae excretion among vaccinees were all significantly lower than in placebo recipients. Peru-15 is a well-tolerated and immunogenic oral cholera vaccine that affords protective efficacy against life-threatening cholera diarrhea in a human volunteer challenge model. This vaccine may therefore be a safe and effective tool to prevent cholera in travelers and is a strong candidate for further evaluation to prevent cholera in an area where cholera is endemic.Infection and Immunity 04/2002; 70(4):1965-70. · 4.16 Impact Factor
Article: Serological studies in cholera. 2. The vibriocidal antibody response of cholera patients determined by a microtechnique.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: A microtechnique is described for the determination of vibriocidal antibodies to Vibrio cholerae, using 0.025 ml of fingertip blood or venous serum per test. This test could be used in epidemiological surveys, or as a routine test on patients admitted to hospital.Fourfold or greater rises in vibriocidal titre were noted for 96.5% of 370 bacteriologically confirmed cholera patients in an endemic area of East Pakistan (91.5% for the 94 children under 5 years in the study group). It is necessary to test sera against both Ogawa and Inaba serotypes of V. cholerae, as a significant titre rise was found against the homologous serotype only in 11% of the cases, and against the heterologous serotype only in 2%.Six serologically positive but bacteriologically negative persons were found to be household contacts of confirmed cholera patients (and 3 of the contacts had been vaccinated against cholera within 1 week before testing); 3 other cases (1.6%) were considered to be false positives.The vibriocidal test using fingertip blood was compared with daily rectal swabbing for the detection of cholera carriers among 153 household contacts of cholera patients, who had not received cholera vaccine within 2 weeks before testing; 16% gave a positive vibriocidal titre, while V. cholerae was isolated from 13% only.Bulletin of the World Health Organisation 02/1968; 38(2):277-85. · 4.64 Impact Factor