Ischemia-induced norepinephrine release, but not norepinephrine-derived free radicals, contributes to myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury
ABSTRACT Norepinephrine (NE)-derived free radicals may contribute to myocyte injury after ischemia -reperfusion, so the influence of sympathetic denervation on myocardial ischemia - reperfusion injury was investigated in the present study.
Cardiac sympathetic denervation was produced in Wistar rats by a solution of 10% phenol 1 week before ischemia. Atenolol (0.5 mg/kg) was intravenously administered 10 min before the coronary occlusion. The left coronary artery was occluded for 30 min and thereafter reperfused. Cardiac interstitial fluid was collected by a microdialysis probe and free radicals in dialysate were determined by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spin trapping, using 5,5-dimethyl-1-pyrroline-N-oxide as a spin trap. The ratio of infarct size to the ischemic area at risk (I/R) was decreased in both the phenol and atenolol groups compared with control (28.5+/-11.3, 31.8+/-10.7 vs 50.6+/-14.7%, p<0.05). During the coronary occlusion, concentrations of interstitial NE increased markedly in the control and atenolol groups, but was unchanged in the phenol group. EPR signal intensity (relative value to internal standard) was maximal at 1 h after reperfusion and was similar in the phenol and control groups (0.32+/-0.15 vs 0.45+/-0.19).
Cardiac denervation protected myocyte against ischemia-reperfusion injury through decreasing direct NE toxicity, but not through decreasing NE-derived free radicals.
- Circulation Journal 01/2006; 70(11):1509-1514. DOI:10.1253/circj.70.1509 · 3.94 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Endogenous catecholamines released during myocardial ischemia have been considered both to aggravate cell injury and exacerbate arrhythmias and to exert a protective action on the post-ischemic contractile function. The present work was addressed to look for evidence to explain this controversy. The effects of cardiac catecholamine depletion and of alpha- and beta-adrenoceptor (AR) blockade on the post-ischemic contractile dysfunction, as well as its possible relationship with cardiac oxidative stress, were studied in isolated and perfused rat hearts submitted to 20 min of ischemia and 30 min of reperfusion (stunning). Catecholamine depletion improves the contractile recovery in the stunned heart. This mechanical effect was associated with decreased levels of lipid peroxidation. A similar enhancement of the contractile function during reperfusion was detected after the simultaneous blockade of alpha 1- and beta-ARs with prazosin plus propranolol. To ascertain which specific AR pathway was involved in the effects of catecholamines on the stunned heart, selective AR blockers, prazosin (alpha 1-blocker), atenolol (beta 1-blocker), ICI 118,551 (beta 2-blocker) and selective inhibitors of Gi-PI3K pathway (pertussis toxin and wortmannin) were alternatively combined. The results indicate that catecholamines released during ischemia exert a dual action on the contractile behavior of the stunned heart: a deleterious effect, related to the activation of the beta 2-AR-Gi-PI3K-pathway, which was counteracted by a beneficial effect, triggered by the stimulation of alpha 1-AR. Neither the depression nor the enhancement of the post-ischemic contractile recovery were related with the increase in ROS formation induced by endogenous catecholamines.Archiv für Experimentelle Pathologie und Pharmakologie 05/2006; 373(1):60-70. DOI:10.1007/s00210-006-0045-6 · 2.47 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of brief ischemia before prolonged ischemia on cardiac sympathetic neural function. Brief ischemia inhibits the sympathetic neural release of norepinephrine (NE) during subsequent sustained ischemia. However, whether it can attenuate the neural function after sustained ischemia remains unknown. Sympathetic neural function was assessed using 123I-metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) in patients who with (Group I) or without angina (Group II) within 3 days prior to acute myocardial infarction. In the rat experiment, cardiac interstitial NE (iNE) with or without pretreatment of 5-min coronary ligation was determined during a 30-min occlusion. Differences between MIBG and Thallium-201 for the total defect score were significantly greater in Group II than in Group I (6.1 +/- 4.0 vs 0.4 +/- 4.4). Levels of iNE were less in rats with a 5-min pretreatment (7.3 +/- 2.3 vs 18.6 +/- 5.9 x 10(3) pg/ml, p < 0.01) and MIBG uptake of ischemic region was greater (0.061 +/- 0.029 vs 0.031 +/- 0.011 %kg dose/g, p < 0.05) compared with rats without the pretreatment. A brief episode of ischemia attenuates the sympathetic neural injury caused by subsequent prolonged ischemia and this protective effect is associated with attenuation of NE release during the prolonged ischemia.Circulation Journal 08/2006; 70(7):919-25. DOI:10.1253/circj.70.919 · 3.94 Impact Factor