Interferon-α/β-mediated innate immune mechanisms in dermatomyositis
ABSTRACT Dermatomyositis has been modeled as an autoimmune disease largely mediated by the adaptive immune system, including a local humorally mediated response with B and T helper cell muscle infiltration, antibody and complement-mediated injury of capillaries, and perifascicular atrophy of muscle fibers caused by ischemia. To further understand the pathophysiology of dermatomyositis, we used microarrays, computational methods, immunohistochemistry and electron microscopy to study muscle specimens from 67 patients, 54 with inflammatory myopathies, 14 with dermatomyositis. In dermatomyositis, genes induced by interferon-alpha/beta were highly overexpressed, and immunohistochemistry for the interferon-alpha/beta inducible protein MxA showed dense staining of perifascicular, and, sometimes all myofibers in 8/14 patients and on capillaries in 13/14 patients. Of 36 patients with other inflammatory myopathies, 1 patient had faint MxA staining of myofibers and 3 of capillaries. Plasmacytoid dendritic cells, potent CD4+ cellular sources of interferon-alpha, are present in substantial numbers in dermatomyositis and may account for most of the cells previously identified as T helper cells. In addition to an adaptive immune response, an innate immune response characterized by plasmacytoid dendritic cell infiltration and interferon-alpha/beta inducible gene and protein expression may be an important part of the pathogenesis of dermatomyositis, as it appears to be in systemic lupus erythematosus.
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ABSTRACT: The blood transcriptome affords a comprehensive view of the status of the human immune system. Global changes in transcript abundance have been measured in the blood of patients with a wide range of diseases. This chapter presents an overview of the advances that have led to the identification of therapeutic targets and biomarker signatures in the field of autoimmunity and infectious disease. It also provides technology and data analysis primers as means of introducing blood transcriptome research to a broad readership. Specifically, we compare microarrays with some of the most recent digital gene expression profiling technologies available to date, including RNA sequencing. Furthermore, in addition to the basic steps involved in the analysis of microarray data we also present more advanced data mining approaches for blood transcriptional fingerprinting.12/2010: pages 105-125;
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ABSTRACT: Polymyositis (PM), dermatomyositis (DM) and inclusion body myositis (IBM) are chronic inflammatory diseases that are characterized by muscle weakness and inflammatory cells in muscle tissue. Autoantibodies are common, some of them are specific for myositis, the most frequent being the anti-Jo-1 antibody which is associated not only with myositis but also with interstitial lung disease and arthritis. A role of type I interferons in disease mechanisms of myositis was first supported by the reported onset of PM and DM during treatment with type I interferon. More recently an interferon signature has been reported in muscle tissue of DM and PM patients both as gene and protein expression, and type I IFN expression in peripheral blood cells seems to correlate with disease activity. Different mechanisms could induce type I interferon in PM and DM like viral infections or endogenous factors as suggested by the observation that sera from myositis patients with anti-Jo-1 antibodies as well as anti-SSA and anti-SSB antibodies have an interferon inducible capacity. Accumulating data indicate a role of the type I interferon in myositis, particularly in juvenile and adult DM and in anti-Jo-1 or anti-SSA positive PM.Autoimmunity 02/2010; 43(3):239-43. DOI:10.3109/08916930903510955 · 2.75 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Progress in the treatment of inflammatory myopathies is impeded by the lack of suitable animal models. Inflammatory myopathies occur spontaneously in the dog, are a heterogeneous group of disorders, and are more common than in humans. Clinical signs of weakness and muscle atrophy are reliably present, and there are histological and immunohistological similarities to forms of human myositis. In this study, microarray technology followed by quantitative real-time PCR and immunohistochemistry on muscle biopsy sections was used to investigate gene expression in cases of canine inflammatory myopathies. Several genes involved with innate and adaptive immunity were highly upregulated including those that participate in macrophage and dendritic cell activation and migration, and antigen processing and presentation. Other genes including those that participate in B cell growth, development, migration and activation, immunoglobulin genes, genes in pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory pathways, and genes involved with tissue remodeling were upregulated. In previous reports utilizing microarray technology in human myositis, there was activation of similar pathways involved in the immune response. This study strengthens the argument that forms of canine myositis may be important animal models of human myositis and suggests useful biomarkers for therapeutic response using the dog in pre-clinical trials.Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology 10/2006; 113(1-2):200-14. DOI:10.1016/j.vetimm.2006.05.005 · 1.75 Impact Factor