Dermatomyositis has been modeled as an autoimmune disease largely mediated by the adaptive immune system, including a local humorally mediated response with B and T helper cell muscle infiltration, antibody and complement-mediated injury of capillaries, and perifascicular atrophy of muscle fibers caused by ischemia. To further understand the pathophysiology of dermatomyositis, we used microarrays, computational methods, immunohistochemistry and electron microscopy to study muscle specimens from 67 patients, 54 with inflammatory myopathies, 14 with dermatomyositis. In dermatomyositis, genes induced by interferon-alpha/beta were highly overexpressed, and immunohistochemistry for the interferon-alpha/beta inducible protein MxA showed dense staining of perifascicular, and, sometimes all myofibers in 8/14 patients and on capillaries in 13/14 patients. Of 36 patients with other inflammatory myopathies, 1 patient had faint MxA staining of myofibers and 3 of capillaries. Plasmacytoid dendritic cells, potent CD4+ cellular sources of interferon-alpha, are present in substantial numbers in dermatomyositis and may account for most of the cells previously identified as T helper cells. In addition to an adaptive immune response, an innate immune response characterized by plasmacytoid dendritic cell infiltration and interferon-alpha/beta inducible gene and protein expression may be an important part of the pathogenesis of dermatomyositis, as it appears to be in systemic lupus erythematosus.
"Type I IFN is involved in the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases such as systemic lupus erythematosus and PM/DM [19–21]. A large number of plasmacytoid dendritic cells infiltrate into the muscle tissue of patients with PM/DM, and mRNAs of the type I IFN-associated gene (IFN signature) are highly expressed . Myxovirus-resistant protein A, a gene that is induced by type I IFN, is highly expressed in the muscle fibers and blood vessels of these patients [22, 23]. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Autoimmune disorder is one of the important side effects of interferon-α therapy. Some polymyositis cases as complication of interferon-α therapy were reported, but dermatomyositis were rarely. We report a case of dermatomyositis as a complication of interferon-α therapy for hepatitis C. A 52-year-old Japanese man was treated by combination therapy with pegylated interferon-α-2b and ribavirin for hepatitis C. Three months after the initiation of therapy, he showed erythema in the posterior cervical to dorsal and anterior cervical to thoracic regions, weight loss, general malaise, muscle pain, and severe increase in levels of muscle enzymes. We made a diagnosis of dermatomyositis according to these clinical features, proximal muscle-predominant myogenic change on electromyography, and infiltration of monocytes and CD4+-dominant lymphocytes on skin biopsy, although myositis-associated antibodies were absent. He was successfully treated with intravenous immunoglobulin and tacrolimus in addition to glucocorticoid. This is a very rare case of dermatomyositis associated with interferon-α therapy. We reviewed several similar published cases and the association of dermatomyositis and type I interferon.
Rheumatology International 03/2014; 34(9). DOI:10.1007/s00296-014-2984-4 · 1.52 Impact Factor
"In addition, we showed that the number of mast cells in the affected muscle was increased in PM as compared with that in DM (Figure 1b). On the other hand, a recent study has suggested that plasmacytoid dendritic cells play an important role in the pathogenesis of DM . Taken together, these data suggest that critical effector cells are different in the pathogenesis of DM and PM. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In addition to the pivotal roles of mast cells in allergic diseases, recent data suggest that mast cells play crucial roles in a variety of autoimmune responses. However, their roles in the pathogenesis of autoimmune skeletal muscle diseases have not been clarified despite their distribution in skeletal muscle. Therefore, the objective of this study is to determine the roles of mast cells in the development of autoimmune skeletal muscle diseases.
The number of mast cells in the affected muscle was examined in patients with dermatomyositis (DM) or polymyositis (PM). The susceptibility of mast cell-deficient WBB6F1-KitW/KitWv mice (W/Wv mice) to a murine model of polymyositis, C protein-induced myositis (CIM), was compared with that of wild-type (WT) mice. The effect of mast cell reconstitution with bone marrow-derived mast cells (BMMCs) on the susceptibility of W/Wv mice to CIM was also evaluated.
The number of mast cells in the affected muscle increased in patients with PM as compared to patients with DM. W/Wv mice exhibited significantly reduced disease incidence and histological scores of CIM as compared with WT mice. The number of CD8+ T cells and macrophages in the skeletal muscles of CIM decreased in W/Wv mice compared to WT mice. Engraftment of BMMCs restored the incidence and histological scores of CIM in W/Wv mice. Vascular permeability in the skeletal muscle was elevated in WT mice but not in W/Wv mice upon CIM induction.
Mast cells are involved in the pathogenesis of inflammatory myopathy.
"Type 1 IFN-inducible genes, including ISG15, are highly upregulated in muscle –, blood , , and skin  of patients with dermatomyositis (DM), an autoimmune disease affecting skeletal muscle and other tissues. Endothelial tubuloreticular inclusions and the proteins MxA and ISG15 are found in abundance intracellularly in diseased myofibers, keratinocytes, and capillaries of DM muscle and skin , , . Plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs), professional type 1 interferon producing cells, are abundant in DM muscle and skin , , . "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Type 1 interferon (IFN)-inducible genes and their inducible products are upregulated in dermatomyositis muscle. Of these, IFN-stimulated gene 15 (ISG15) is one of the most upregulated, suggesting its possible involvement in the pathogenesis of this disease. To test this postulate, we developed a model of type 1 IFN mediated myotube toxicity and assessed whether or not downregulation of ISG15 expression prevents this toxicity.
Mouse myoblasts (C2C12 cell line) were cultured in the presence of type 1 or type 2 IFNs and ISG15 expression assessed by microarray analysis. The morphology of newly formed myotubes was assessed by measuring their length, diameter, and area on micrographs using imaging software. ISG15 expression was silenced through transfection with small interference RNA.
Type 1 IFNs, especially IFN-beta, increased ISG15 expression in C2C12 cells and impaired myotube formation. Silencing of ISG15 resulted in knockdown of ISG15 protein, but without phenotypic rescue of myotube formation.
IFN-beta affects myoblast differentiation ability and myotube morphology in vitro.These studies provide evidence that ISG15, which is highly upregulated in dermatomyositis muscle, does not appear to play a key role in IFN-beta-mediated C2C12 myoblast cell fusion.
PLoS ONE 06/2013; 8(6):e65362. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0065362 · 3.23 Impact Factor
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