Article

Intragenic suppression of trafficking-defective KCNH2 channels associated with long QT syndrome.

Department of Medicine, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin 53706, USA.
Molecular Pharmacology (Impact Factor: 4.12). 08/2005; 68(1):233-40. DOI: 10.1124/mol.105.012914
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Mutations in the KCNH2 or human ether-a-go-go-related gene-encoded K(+) channel reduce functional KCNH2 current (I(KCNH2)) to cause long QT syndrome (LQT2) by multiple mechanisms, including defects in intracellular transport (trafficking). Trafficking-deficient, or class 2, LQT2 mutations reduce the Golgi processing and surface membrane expression of KCNH2 channel proteins. Drugs that associate with pore-S6 intracellular drug binding domain of KCNH2 channel proteins to cause high-affinity block of I(KCNH2) also can increase the processing of class 2 LQT2 channel proteins through the secretory pathway. We used a strategy of intragenic suppression to test the hypothesis that amino acid substitutions in the putative drug binding domain at residue Y652 could compensate for protein folding abnormalities caused by class 2 LQT2 mutations. We found that the Y652C substitution, and to lesser extent the Y652S substitution, resulted in intragenic suppression of the class 2 LQT2 G601S phenotype; these substitutions increased Golgi processing of G601S channel proteins. The Y652C substitution also caused intragenic suppression of the class 2 LQT2 V612L and F640V phenotypes but not the LQT2 N470D or F805C phenotypes. These are the first findings to demonstrate that a single amino acid substitution in the putative KCNH2 drug binding domain can cause intragenic suppression of several LQT2 mutations.

0 Bookmarks
 · 
85 Views
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: KCNH2 encodes Kv11.1 and underlies the rapidly activating delayed rectifier K(+) current (IKr) in the heart. Loss-of-function KCNH2 mutations cause the type 2 long QT syndrome (LQT2), and most LQT2-linked missense mutations inhibit the trafficking of Kv11.1 channels. Drugs that bind to Kv11.1 and block IKr (e.g. E-4031) can act as pharmacological chaperones to increase the trafficking and functional expression for most LQT2 channels (pharmacological correction). We previously showed that LQT2 channels are selectively stored in a microtubule-dependent compartment within the Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER). We tested the hypothesis that pharmacological correction promotes the trafficking of LQT2 channels stored in this compartment. Confocal analyses of cells expressing the trafficking-deficient LQT2 channel G601S showed that the microtubule-dependent ER compartment is the transitional ER. Experiments with E-4031 and the protein synthesis inhibitor cycloheximide suggested that pharmacological correction promotes the trafficking of G601S stored in this compartment. Treating cells in E-4031 or ranolazine (a drug that blocks IKr and has a short half-life) for 30 minutes was sufficient to cause pharmacological correction. Moreover, the increased functional expression of G601S persisted 4-5 hours after drug wash out. Coexpression studies with a dominant-negative form of Rab11B, a small GTPase that regulates Kv11.1 trafficking, prevented the pharmacological correction of G601S trafficking from the transitional ER. These data suggest that pharmacological correction quickly increases the trafficking of LQT2 channels stored in the transitional ER via a Rab11B-dependent pathway, and we conclude that the pharmacological chaperone activity of drugs like ranolazine might have therapeutic potential.
    AJP Cell Physiology 07/2013; · 3.71 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The specific functions of sensory systems depend on the tissue-specific expression of genes that code for molecular sensor proteins that are necessary for stimulus detection and membrane signaling. Using the Next Generation Sequencing technique (RNA-Seq), we analyzed the complete transcriptome of the trigeminal ganglia (TG) and dorsal root ganglia (DRG) of adult mice. Focusing on genes with an expression level higher than 1 FPKM (fragments per kilobase of transcript per million mapped reads), we detected the expression of 12984 genes in the TG and 13195 in the DRG. To analyze the specific gene expression patterns of the peripheral neuronal tissues, we compared their gene expression profiles with that of the liver, brain, olfactory epithelium, and skeletal muscle. The transcriptome data of the TG and DRG were scanned for virtually all known G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) as well as for ion channels. The expression profile was ranked with regard to the level and specificity for the TG. In total, we detected 106 non-olfactory GPCRs and 33 ion channels that had not been previously described as expressed in the TG. To validate the RNA-Seq data, in situ hybridization experiments were performed for several of the newly detected transcripts. To identify differences in expression profiles between the sensory ganglia, the RNA-Seq data of the TG and DRG were compared. Among the differentially expressed genes (> 1 FPKM), 65 and 117 were expressed at least 10-fold higher in the TG and DRG, respectively. Our transcriptome analysis allows a comprehensive overview of all ion channels and G protein-coupled receptors that are expressed in trigeminal ganglia and provides additional approaches for the investigation of trigeminal sensing as well as for the physiological and pathophysiological mechanisms of pain.
    PLoS ONE 11/2013; 8(11):e79523. · 3.53 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The human ether-a-go-go - related gene (hERG) encodes the pore-forming subunit of the rapidly activating delayed rectifier potassium channel (IKr), which is important for cardiac repolarization. Reduction of hERG current due to genetic mutations or drug interferences causes long QT syndrome (LQTS), leading to cardiac arrhythmias and sudden death. To date, there is no effective therapeutic method to restore or enhance hERG channel function. Using cell biology and electrophysiological methods, we found that muscarinic receptor agonist carbachol increased the expression and function of hERG, but not EAG or Kv1.5 channels stably expressed in HEK cells. The carbachol-mediated increase in hERG expression was abolished by the selective M3 antagonist 4-DAMP but not by the M2 antagonist AF-DX 166. Treatment of cells with carbachol reduced the hERG-ubiquitin interaction and slowed the rate of hERG degradation. We previously showed that the E3 ubiquitin ligase Nedd4-2 mediates degradation of hERG channels. Here, we found that disrupting the Nedd4-2 binding domain in hERG completely eliminated the effect of carbachol on hERG channels. Carbachol treatment enhanced the phosphorylation level, but not the total level, of Nedd4-2. Blockade of the PKC pathway abolished the carbachol-induced enhancement of hERG channels. We conclude that muscarinic activation increases hERG channel expression by phosphorylating Nedd4-2 via the PKC pathway.
    Molecular pharmacology 03/2014; · 4.12 Impact Factor

Preview

Download
1 Download
Available from