A total synthesis of 13-deoxytedanolide is described. The synthesis features a highly stereoselective fragment assembly aldol reaction of methyl ketone 4 and aldehyde 5 to establish the complete carbon skeleton of the natural product in the form of aldol 15. The facile formation of the remarkably unreactive hemiketal 16 thwarted attempts to elaborate 15 to tedanolide. However, deoxygenation of the C(13)-hydroxyl of 16 provided the 13-deoxy hemiketal 17 that was smoothly elaborated to 13-deoxytedanolide.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: [structure: see text] A highly stereoselective synthesis of the C13-C23 segment of tedanolide (1), an 18-membered macrolide isolated from the Caribbean sponge Tedania ignis, displaying significant cytotoxicity against KB and PS tumor cell lines, is described which involves two stereoselective epoxidations of regioisomeric trisubstituted double bonds and a stereospecific S(N)2' methylation reaction of a trans-gamma,delta-epoxy-cis-alpha,beta-unsaturated ester as the key steps.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: 13-Deoxytedanolide is a structurally unique macrolide with strong antitumor activity isolated from a marine sponge. Recently, we showed that 13-deoxytedanolide bound to the large subunit of the yeast ribosome and inhibited polypeptide elongation in vitro, but the mechanism by which it exerts antitumor activity is still unknown. Here we show that 13-deoxytedanolide strongly induces plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1) promoter-derived gene expression. 13-Deoxytedanolide, unlike TGF-beta, did not cause apparent nuclear translocation of Smad2/3, but it relocalized the temperature-sensitive mutant of mouse p53 (p53Val153) from the cytoplasm to the nucleus at a nonpermissive temperature, suggesting that 13-deoxytedanolide inhibits protein synthesis. Indeed, the drug inhibited in vivo protein synthesis at low nanomolar concentrations and strongly activated stress-activated protein kinases such as p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase and Jun NH2-terminal protein kinase (JNK). Anisomycin, a well-known inducer of ribotoxic stress that activates both p38 and JNK, also activated PAI-1 gene expression, while other protein synthesis inhibitors that do not activate the kinases failed to do so. PAI-1 gene expression by 13-deoxytedanolide and anisomycin was blocked by SB202190, a specific inhibitor of p38, and SP600125, an inhibitor of both p38 and JNK. 13-Deoxytedanolide and anisomycin caused activation of apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1, MKK3/MKK6, and SEK1/MKK4, the regulatory kinases upstream of p38 and JNK. These results suggest that 13-deoxytedanolide, like anisomycin, triggers a ribotoxic stress response that activates stress-activated protein kinase cascades, thereby inducing PAI-1 gene expression and apoptosis.
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