Studies evaluating newer antihistamines in children are few. Levocetirizine is a potent and highly selective H1-antihistamine with a proven efficacy in adults. Primary objective was to assess the efficacy of levocetirizine 5 mg once-daily in reducing seasonal allergic rhinitis (SAR) symptoms, as measured by Total Four Symptom Score (T4SS = sum of sneezing, rhinorrhea, nasal and ocular pruritus), over the first 2 wk of treatment. Efficacy over 4 and 6 wk of treatment, effect on nasal congestion and on health-related quality of life as measured by PRQLQ (Paediatric Rhinoconjunctivitis Quality of Life Questionnaire) were among the major secondary objectives. A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study including 177 children with a documented SAR (to grass and/or weed) for at least a year and having a mean baseline T4SS > or = 6 (out of 12). Children evaluated daily the severity of T4SS and nasal congestion on a scale from 0 (absent) to 3 (severe). PRQLQ responses were assessed on a scale from 0 (not bothered) to 6 (extremely bothered) and analysed descriptively. Global evaluation of disease evolution judged by investigators, parents and children was made on a scale from 1 (marked worsening) to 7 (marked improvement). For the primary objective, levocetirizine was statistically highly superior to placebo with a difference in adjusted means of 1.29 (95% CI: 0.66-1.92) in favour of levocetirizine (p < 0.001). The effect of levocetirizine was almost twice that of placebo (94.1% relative improvement over placebo). Nasal congestion was improved with levocetirizine reaching maximum difference to placebo of 0.31 (p < 0.05), a relative improvement over placebo of 77.5%. PRQLQ scores at week 2 improved with levocetirizine more than with placebo (0.85 vs. 0.51, respectively) remaining larger after 4 and 6 wk of treatment. In the study, 84.3%, 80.9%, 80.9% of children had their disease evolution rated as slightly-to-markedly improved by, respectively, the investigators, the parents and children themselves. Incidence of treatment-emergent adverse events was similar in both groups (33.7% with levocetirizine; 30.7% with placebo). No child in the levocetirizine group discontinued treatment because of adverse events. The 6-wk duration of this study was longer than the usual 2-4-wk duration for similar studies and shows that levocetirizine controls SAR symptoms in children over the entire pollen season.
"Oral antihistamines are effective in the treatment of rhinorrhea, sneezing, nasal itching and eye symptoms but less effective in nasal obstruction.40 Oral antihistamines have been reported to be safe and effective in children.41 Terfenadine and astemizole were initially used second-generation antihistamines. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Treatment of AR requires a stepwise approach depending on the severity and duration of symptoms. Treatment options for AR consist of allergen avoidance, pharmacotherapy, immunotherapy and surgery. For the mechanisms of AR, anti-IgE antibody and specific antibody to cytokines such as IL-4 or IL-5 that correlate with allergic inflammation have recently emerged. SLIT is currently widely used due to its efficacy, safety and convenience, which replaces subcutaneous immunotherapy. Although allergen avoidance and immunotherapy are theoretically ideal, antihistamines and intranasal corticosteroids will play the main role in the management of AR until an innovative treatment develops. However, patients' main symptom, the duration and severity of AR, patients' compliance, safety of medication and cost-effectiveness should be considered when treatment options are chosen. In conclusion, physicians should be aware of etiology, pathophysiology, symptoms, signs and diseases related to AR in order to make a correct diagnosis and choose a proper treatment option for each patient.
"The majority of these studies found levocetirizine to be the most potent of the antihistamines tested , including the parent compound cetirizine . Large, well designed controlled clinical trials have demonstrated the efficacy of levocetirizine in adults with allergic rhinitis and chronic idiopathic urticaria [7,8], while well conducted studies have demonstrated levocetirizine to be safe and effective in young children with atopic rhinitis [9,10] or chronic urticaria . Levocetirizine appears to have significant effects on nasal blockage [12,13]. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Levocetirizine, the R-enantiomer of cetirizine dihydrochloride has pharmacodynamically and pharmacokinetically favourable characteristics, including rapid onset of action, high bioavailability, high affinity for and occupancy of the H1-receptor, limited distribution, minimal hepatic metabolism together with minimal untoward effects. Several well conducted randomised clinical trials have demonstrated the effectiveness of levocetirizine for the treatment of allergic rhinitis and chronic idiopathic urticaria in adults and children. In addition to the treatment for the immediate short-term manifestations of allergic disease, there appears to be a growing trend for the use of levocetirizine as long-term therapy. In addition to its being a potent antihistamine, levocetirizine has several documented anti-inflammatory effects that are observed at clinically relevant concentrations that may enhance its therapeutic benefit. This review will consider the potential or otherwise of the reported anti-inflammatory effects of levocetirizine to enhance its effectiveness in the treatment of allergic disease.
"Histamine is recognized as a key factor in the pathogenesis of allergic diseases. Levocetirizine, a selective H1 antihistamine, controls seasonal allergic rhinitis symptoms in children (34). Use of sedating H1R blockers was also associated with a decreased risk of developing multiple sclerosis (35) and improved the quality of life of patients with chronic idiopathic urticaria (36), suggesting a possible beneficial effect of antihistamines on the onset of some autoimmune diseases. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: From the inoculation of Plasmodium sporozoites via Anopheles mosquito bites to the development of blood-stage parasites, a hallmark of the host response is an inflammatory reaction characterized by elevated histamine levels in the serum and tissues. Given the proinflammatory and immunosuppressive activities associated with histamine, we postulated that this vasoactive amine participates in malaria pathogenesis. Combined genetic and pharmacologic approaches demonstrated that histamine binding to H1R and H2R but not H3R and H4R increases the susceptibility of mice to infection with Plasmodium. To further understand the role of histamine in malaria pathogenesis, we used histidine decarboxylase-deficient (HDC(-/-)) mice, which are free of histamine. HDC(-/-) mice were highly resistant to severe malaria whether infected by mosquito bites or via injection of infected erythrocytes. HDC(-/-) mice displayed resistance to two lethal strains: Plasmodium berghei (Pb) ANKA, which triggers cerebral malaria (CM), and Pb NK65, which causes death without neurological symptoms. The resistance of HDC(-/-) mice to CM was associated with preserved blood-brain barrier integrity, the absence of infected erythrocyte aggregation in the brain vessels, and a lack of sequestration of CD4 and CD8 T cells. We demonstrate that histamine-mediated signaling contributes to malaria pathogenesis. Understanding the basis for these biological effects of histamine during infection may lead to novel therapeutic strategies to alleviate the severity of malaria.
Journal of Experimental Medicine 03/2008; 205(2):395-408. DOI:10.1084/jem.20071548 · 12.52 Impact Factor
Data provided are for informational purposes only. Although carefully collected, accuracy cannot be guaranteed. The impact factor represents a rough estimation of the journal's impact factor and does not reflect the actual current impact factor. Publisher conditions are provided by RoMEO. Differing provisions from the publisher's actual policy or licence agreement may be applicable.