Haffner S, Temprosa M, Crandall J, et al. Intensive lifestyle intervention or metformin on inflammation and coagulation in participants with impaired glucose tolerance

George Washington University, Washington, Washington, D.C., United States
Diabetes (Impact Factor: 8.1). 06/2005; 54(5):1566-72. DOI: 10.2337/diabetes.54.5.1566
Source: PubMed


Increases in subclinical inflammation (C-reactive protein [CRP]) and impaired coagulation have been associated with increased obesity and insulin resistance. Only a few small studies have examined the effect of lifestyle changes, such as weight loss, increased physical activity, and insulin-sensitizing intervention on inflammation and coagulation. The Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP) clinical trial studied the effect of an intensive lifestyle intervention or metformin on progression to diabetes relative to placebo in 3,234 adults with impaired glucose tolerance. The effects of these interventions on CRP and fibrinogen at 12 months are examined in this report. Metformin reduced CRP in women compared with the placebo group. In men, the median changes in CRP from baseline to 1 year were -33% in the lifestyle group, -7% in the metformin group, and +5% in the placebo group. In women, the changes in CRP from baseline to follow-up were -29% in the lifestyle group, -14% in the metformin group, and 0% in the placebo group. In the lifestyle group weight loss rather than increased physical activity seems to account for most of the changes in CRP. Only modest reductions (although significant) were seen in fibrinogen levels in the lifestyle group relative to the metformin and placebo group. Lifestyle intervention reduced levels of nontraditional cardiovascular risk factors relative to both placebo and to a lesser degree to metformin.

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    ABSTRACT: Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is a metabolic disease characterized by insulin resistance, β-cell dysfunction, and elevated hepatic glucose output. Over 350 million people worldwide have T2D, and the International Diabetes Federation projects that this number will increase to nearly 600 million by 2035. There is a great need for more effective treatments for maintaining glucose homeostasis and improving insulin sensitivity. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is an evolutionarily conserved serine/threonine kinase whose activation elicits insulin-sensitizing effects, making it an ideal therapeutic target for T2D. AMPK is an energy-sensing enzyme that is activated when cellular energy levels are low, and it signals to stimulate glucose uptake in skeletal muscles, fatty acid oxidation in adipose (and other) tissues, and reduces hepatic glucose production. There is substantial evidence suggesting that AMPK is dysregulated in animals and humans with metabolic syndrome or T2D, and that AMPK activation (physiological or pharmacological) can improve insulin sensitivity and metabolic health. Numerous pharmacological agents, natural compounds, and hormones are known to activate AMPK, either directly or indirectly - some of which (for example, metformin and thiazolidinediones) are currently used to treat T2D. This paper will review the regulation of the AMPK pathway and its role in T2D, some of the known AMPK activators and their mechanisms of action, and the potential for future improvements in targeting AMPK for the treatment of T2D.
    Diabetes, Metabolic Syndrome and Obesity: Targets and Therapy 06/2014; 7:241-53. DOI:10.2147/DMSO.S43731
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    • "White blood cell counts and plasma levels of coagulation factors (fibrinogen and plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI- 1)), acute-phase proteins such as C-reactive protein (CRP) and serum amyloid A (SAA), pro-inflammatory cytokines (tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-a, interleukin (IL)-1b and IL-6), and chemokines are elevated in obese and T2DM patients and shown to be reduced when these patients are engaged in a more intensive lifestyle causing weight loss [6] [7] [8] [9] [10] [11]. These pro-inflammatory markers also positively correlated with insulin resistance and the features of the metabolic syndrome, in most cases, independently of the degree of obesity [6,7,12–14] "
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    ABSTRACT: It is recognized that a chronic low-grade inflammation and an activation of the immune system are involved in the pathogenesis of obesity-related insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. Systemic inflammatory markers are risk factors for the development of type 2 diabetes and its macrovascular complications. Adipose tissue, liver, muscle and pancreas are themselves sites of inflammation in presence of obesity. An infiltration of macrophages and other immune cells is observed in these tissues associated with a cell population shift from an anti-inflammatory to a pro-inflammatory profile. These cells are crucial for the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, which act in an autocrine and paracrine manner to interfere with insulin signaling in peripheral tissues or induce β-cell dysfunction and subsequent insulin deficiency. Particularly, the pro-inflammatory interleukin-1β is implicated in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes through the activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome. The objectives of this review are to expose recent data supporting the role of the immune system in the pathogenesis of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes and to examine various mechanisms underlying this relationship. If type 2 diabetes is an inflammatory disease, anti-inflammatory therapies could have a place in prevention and treatment of type 2 diabetes.
    Diabetes research and clinical practice 04/2014; 105(2). DOI:10.1016/j.diabres.2014.04.006 · 2.54 Impact Factor
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    • "Many different mechanisms, beyond glycemic control, have been implicated in vascular protection induced by metformin such as improvements in the inflammatory pathway [86], coagulation [87], oxidative stress and glycation [88-92], endothelial dysfunction [88-90], haemostasis [88,91-93], insulin resistance improvement [94], lipid profiles [95,96], and fat redistribution [97,98]. Some of these mechanisms are described below. "
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    ABSTRACT: The management of T2DM requires aggressive treatment to achieve glycemic and cardiovascular risk factor goals. In this setting, metformin, an old and widely accepted first line agent, stands out not only for its antiglycemic properties but also for its effects beyond glycemic control such as improvements in endothelial dysfunction, hemostasis and oxidative stress, insulin resistance, lipid profiles, and fat redistribution. These properties may have contributed to the decrease adverse cardiovascular outcomes otherwise not attributable to metformin's mere antihyperglycemic effects. Several other classes of oral antidiabetic agents have been recently introduced, introducing the need to evaluate the role of metformin as initial therapy and in combination with these newer drugs. There is increasing evidence from in vivo and in vitro studies supporting its anti-proliferative role in cancer and possibly a neuroprotective effect. Metformin's negligible risk of hypoglycemia in monotherapy and few drug interactions of clinical relevance give this drug a high safety profile. The tolerability of metformin may be improved by using an appropiate dose titration, starting with low doses, so that side-effects can be minimized or by switching to an extended release form. We reviewed the role of metformin in the treatment of patients with type 2 diabetes and describe the additional benefits beyond its glycemic effect. We also discuss its potential role for a variety of insulin resistant and pre-diabetic states, obesity, metabolic abnormalities associated with HIV disease, gestational diabetes, cancer, and neuroprotection.
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