Subjective self-control and behavioural impulsivity coexist in anorexia nervosa.
ABSTRACT Anorexia nervosa (AN) has been associated with impulse regulation problems. This study investigated subjective and behavioural impulsivity in women with anorexia nervosa (n=15) and a control group (n=16).
A self-report measure (the impulsiveness, venturesomeness, and empathy questionnaire; I(7)) and two behavioural measures (a continuous performance task [CPT]; and a novel risk taking measure [Bets 16]) of impulsivity were used along with the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI).
The AN group had elevated BDI scores and lower self-reported impulsiveness and venturesomeness scores, but they also displayed impulsive behaviour on the CPT (more errors of commission with faster reaction times).
The coexistence, in AN, of self-reported self-control and behavioural impulsivity indicates that the relationship between impulsivity and disordered eating in AN is more complex than previously recognised and supports the view that self-awareness in AN is low.
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ABSTRACT: A series of studies with children in Grades 1-4 inquired into the immediate and historical determinants of a preference for analytic conceptual groupings. An analytic concept is based upon shared similarity in a particular objective component among a set of stimuli (e.g., animals with 1 car, people with hats on). Results revealed that 2 more fundamental cognitive dispositions each contributed variance to the production of analytic concepts: the tendency to reflect over alternative solutions or classifications in situations in which several response alternatives arc available simultaneously, and the tendency to analyze visual arrays into their component parts. These 2 dispositions are relatively independent of each other, orthogonal to verbal skills; and each influences the frequency of errors in perceptual recognition tasks. Degree of reflection over alternative solution hypotheses (as measured by response time) displayed remarkable generality across a variety of tasks and marked intraindividual stability over a 1-yr. period. There was an inverse relation between the production of analytic concepts and extreme degrees of hyperactivity and distractibility contemporaneously as well as during the 1st 8 yr. of life.
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ABSTRACT: It has not been clear from earlier studies whether it is binge eating per se or the compensatory behaviors frequently associated with binge eating (i.e., self-induced vomiting and/or laxative abuse) that provide the most relevant marker for subclassifying anorexia nervosa. The current study addressed this question by comparing the clinical and psychological features of three groups of anorexia nervosa patients: "pure restricting" patients who do not binge (by definition) and who also do not purge (AN-R, N = 116); "restricting-purging" patients who engage in purging behavior (AN-RP, N = 74); and anorexia nervosa "bulimics" who binge eat as defined in earlier studies (AN-B, N = 190). While all three groups displayed similar levels of psychological disturbance on many variables, the overall pattern of findings indicates that the AN-RP group displays significantly more psychopathology than the AN-R group and their profile of disturbance is very similar to that observed with the AN-B group. Thus, anorexia nervosa patients who purge, regardless of whether or not they report objective binge episodes, may be meaningfully distinguished from nonpurging patients. These results, combined with the medical risks associated with purging behaviors and the formidable problems associated with the definition of binge eating, support a sub-typing system for anorexia nervosa based on the presence or absence of purging rather than binge eating.International Journal of Eating Disorders 04/1993; 13(2):171-85. · 2.88 Impact Factor
Article: Impulsivity and eating disorders.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Sixty-seven patients with bulimia nervosa and 29 patients with anorexia nervosa completed the Impulsiveness Questionnaire and questionnaires detailing severity of eating disorder. Bulimic patients had higher impulsivity scores than anorexic patients. Bulimics with high impulsivity scores did not have more severe eating disorders than low scorers. When 39 bulimics and 25 anorexics were interviewed about other impulsive behaviour, 51% of bulimics and 28% of anorexics reported at least one other impulsive behaviour. Patients with so-called 'multi-impulsive' bulimia reported more severe eating disturbance, but this was not reflected on more reliable measures of symptoms. Thirty-nine bulimics entered an eight-week treatment trial and their progress was assessed at eight weeks, 16 weeks and one year. 'Non-impulsive' bulimics had a more rapid response than 'impulsives' during treatment, but there was no difference at follow-up. There was no evidence of an association between high impulsivity trait scores and poor treatment response. It is concluded that impulsivity may shape the expression of eating disorders, but that 'multi-impulsives' do not constitute a categorically distinct subgroup of bulimics.The British Journal of Psychiatry 03/1993; 162:193-7. · 6.61 Impact Factor