Iron deficiency with normal ferritin levels in restless legs syndrome
ABSTRACT This report describes a patient with iron deficiency in bone marrow examination and iron-responsive restless legs syndrome (RLS), in whom serum ferritin levels were well above the conventional cutoff for considering iron deficiency. The predictive value of serum ferritin for iron deficiency in RLS depends on the cutoff employed, on the pre-test likelihood of iron deficiency and on coexisting inflammatory conditions. Bone marrow examination is helpful when ferritin levels are equivocal. (c) 2004 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Full-textDOI: · Available from: Shaun T O'Keeffe, May 13, 2014
Chapter: The Restless Legs SyndromeTherapeutics of Parkinson's Disease and Other Movement Disorders, 10/2008: pages 445 - 467; , ISBN: 9780470713990
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ABSTRACT: Background In 2003, following a workshop at the National Institutes of Health, the International Restless Legs Syndrome Study Group (IRLSSG) developed updated diagnostic criteria for restless legs syndrome/Willis–Ekbom disease (RLS/WED). These criteria were integral to major advances in research, notably in epidemiology, biology, and treatment of RLS/WED. However, extensive review of accumulating literature based on the 2003 NIH/IRLSSG criteria led to efforts to improve the diagnostic criteria further. Methods The Clinical Standards Workshop, sponsored by the WED Foundation and IRLSSG in 2008, started a four-year process for updating the diagnostic criteria. That process included a rigorous review of research advances and input from clinical experts across multiple disciplines. After broad consensus was attained, the criteria were formally approved by the IRLSSG executive committee and membership. Results Major changes are: (i) addition of a fifth essential criterion, differential diagnosis, to improve specificity by requiring that RLS/WED symptoms not be confused with similar symptoms from other conditions; (ii) addition of a specifier to delineate clinically significant RLS/WED; (iii) addition of course specifiers to classify RLS/WED as chronic–persistent or intermittent; and (iv) merging of the pediatric with the adult diagnostic criteria. Also discussed are supportive features and clinical aspects that are important in the diagnostic evaluation. Conclusions The IRLSSG consensus criteria for RLS/WED represent an international, interdisciplinary, and collaborative effort intended to improve clinical practice and promote further research.Sleep Medicine 08/2014; 15(8). DOI:10.1016/j.sleep.2014.03.025 · 3.10 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Since the publication of the first European Federation of Neurological Societies (EFNS) guidelines in 2005 on the management of restless legs syndrome (RLS; also known as Willis-Ekbom disease), there have been major therapeutic advances in the field. Furthermore, the management of RLS is now a part of routine neurological practice in Europe. New drugs have also become available, and further randomized controlled trials have been undertaken. These guidelines were undertaken by the EFNS in collaboration with the European Neurological Society and the European Sleep Research Society. To provide an evidence-based update of new treatments published since 2005 for the management of RLS. First, we determined what the objectives of management of primary and secondary RLS should be. We developed the search strategy and conducted a review of the scientific literature up to 31 December 2011 (print and electronic publications) for the drug classes and interventions employed in RLS treatment. Previous guidelines were consulted. All trials were analysed according to class of evidence, and recommendations made according to the 2004 EFNS criteria for rating. Level A recommendations can be made for rotigotine, ropinirole, pramipexole, gabapentin enacarbil, gabapentin and pregabalin, which are all considered effective for the short-term treatment for RLS. However, for the long-term treatment for RLS, rotigotine is considered effective, gabapentin enacarbil is probably effective, and ropinirole, pramipexole and gabapentin are considered possibly effective. Cabergoline has according to our criteria a level A recommendation, but the taskforce cannot recommend this drug because of its serious adverse events.European Journal of Neurology 09/2012; 19(11):1385-96. DOI:10.1111/j.1468-1331.2012.03853.x · 3.85 Impact Factor