Effects of atorvastatin on blood-brain barrier permeability during L-NAME hypertension followed by angiotensin-II in rats.
ABSTRACT Recent studies suggest that 3-hydroxy-3 methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase inhibitors, statins, can have direct effects on blood vessels beyond their cholesterol-lowering effects. We investigated the effects of atorvastatin on the functional and structural properties of blood-brain barrier (BBB) and the activity of astrocytes during the N(omega)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) hypertension followed by angiotensin (ANG) II. We found that decreases in concentration of serum catalase and plasma nitric oxide (NO) induced by L-NAME were significantly ameliorated by atorvastatin, whereas L-NAME-induced serum malondialdehyde and cholesterol concentration increases were significantly reduced by atorvastatin. The content of Evans blue (EB) dye significantly increased in cerebellum, left cerebral cortex and diencephalon regions but atorvastatin markedly reduced the increased BBB permeability to EB in the brain regions of animals treated with L-NAME and L-NAME plus ANG II. Brain vessels of L-NAME-treated animals showed a considerable loss of immunoreactivity of tight junction proteins, zonula occludens (ZO)-1 and occludin. Immunoreactivity for ZO-1 and occludin increased in animals treated with atorvastatin and L-NAME plus atorvastatin. Glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) immunoreactivity was seen in few astrocytes in the brain sections of L-NAME, but immunoreactivity for GFAP increased in L-NAME plus atorvastatin-treated animals. We suggest that long-term L-NAME treatment may affect BBB permeability through disruption of tight junction proteins, at least partly, via decreased NO concentration and increased oxidant capacity; the improvement of BBB integrity and astrocytic activity would be more closely associated with the action of atorvastatin favoring the increase in anti-oxidant capacity and expression of tight junction proteins and GFAP.
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ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Emerging evidence suggests that disturbances in the blood--brain barrier (BBB) may be pivotal to the pathogenesis and pathology of vascular-based neurodegenerative disorders. Studies suggest that heightened systemic and central inflammations are associated with BBB dysfunction. This study investigated the effect of the anti-inflammatory nutraceuticals garlic extracts-aged (GEA), alpha lipoic acid (ALA), niacin, and nicotinamide (NA) in a murine dietary-induced model of BBB dysfunction. METHODS: C57BL/6 mice were fed a diet enriched in saturated fatty acids (SFA, 40% fat of total energy) for nine months to induce systemic inflammation and BBB disturbances. Nutraceutical treatment groups included the provision of either GEA, ALA, niacin or NA in the positive control SFA-group and in low-fat fed controls. Brain parenchymal extravasation of plasma derived immunoglobulin G (IgG) and large macromolecules (apolipoprotein (apo) B lipoproteins) measured by quantitative immunofluorescent microscopy, were used as markers of disturbed BBB integrity. Parenchymal glial fibrillar acidic protein (GFAP) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) were considered in the context of surrogate markers of neurovascular inflammation and oxidative stress. Total anti-oxidant status and glutathione reductase activity were determined in plasma. RESULTS: Brain parenchymal abundance of IgG and apoB lipoproteins was markedly exaggerated in mice maintained on the SFA diet concomitant with significantly increased GFAP, COX-2, and reduced systemic anti-oxidative status. The nutraceutical GEA, ALA, niacin, and NA completely prevented the SFA-induced disturbances of BBB and normalized the measures of neurovascular inflammation and oxidative stress. CONCLUSIONS: The anti-inflammatory nutraceutical agents GEA, ALA, niacin, or NA are potent inhibitors of dietary fat-induced disturbances of BBB induced by systemic inflammations.Journal of Neuroinflammation 06/2013; 10(1):73. · 4.35 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Several studies have identified use of non-steroidal-anti-inflammatory drugs and statins for prevention of dementia, but their efficacy in slowing progression is not well understood. Cerebrovascular disturbances are common pathological feature of Alzheimer's disease. We previously reported chronic ingestion of saturated fatty acids (SFA) compromises blood--brain barrier (BBB) integrity resulting in cerebral extravasation of plasma proteins and inflammation. However, the SFA-induced parenchymal accumulation of plasma proteins could be prevented by co-administration of some cholesterol lowering agents. Restoration of BBB dysfunction is clinically relevant, so the purpose of this study was to explore lipid-lowering agents could reverse BBB disturbances induced by chronic ingestion of SFA's. METHODS: Wild-type mice were fed an SFA diet for 12 weeks to induce BBB dysfunction, and then randomised to receive atorvastatin, pravastatin or ibuprofen in combination with the SFA-rich diet for 2 or 8 weeks. Abundance of plasma-derived immunoglobulin-G (IgG) and amyloid-beta enriched apolipoprotein (apo)-B lipoproteins within brain parenchyme were quantified utilising immunofluorescence microscopy. RESULTS: Atorvastatin treatment for 2 and 8 weeks restored BBB integrity, indicated by a substantial reduction of IgG and apo B, particularly within the hippocampus. Pravastatin, a water-soluble statin was less effective than atorvastatin (lipid-soluble). Statin effects were independent of changes in plasma lipid homeostasis. Ibuprofen, a lipid-soluble cyclooxygenase inhibitor attenuated cerebral accumulation of IgG and apo B as effectively as atorvastatin. Our findings are consistent with the drug effects being independent of plasma lipid homeostasis. CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that BBB dysfunction induced by chronic ingestion of SFA is reversible with timely introduction and sustained treatment with agents that suppress inflammation.Lipids in Health and Disease 09/2012; 11(1):117. · 2.31 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Objectives. Current evidence suggests that the beneficial vascular effects of statins are not limited to the statins' lipid-lowering properties; these drugs can also improve vascular endothelial cell function. Nω-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) is a potent synthetic nitric oxide inhibitor, and long-term oral L-NAME treatment is used to induce vascular lesions in experimental animal models. Methods. We determined the effects of statins on protein carbonyl (PCO), lipid hydroperoxides (LHP), oxidized low-density lipoproteins (ox-LDL) and antioxidants such as paraoxonase 1 (PON1) and total thiols (T-SH) in long-term L-NAME-treated rats. Adult male Wistar rats were divided into three groups, namely, control, L-NAME-treated (1 mg/mL in drinking water for three weeks), and atorvastatin plus L-NAME-treated (4 mg/kg/day atorvastatin for 1 week during the third week of L-NAME treatment) groups. Results. In the L-NAME group, the ox-LDL, LHP and PCO were higher and the PON1 and T-SH were lower than the concentrations observed for the controls. When compared with the L-NAME group, the L-NAME plus atorvastatin group had significantly lower ox-LDL and LHP and higher PON1 activities. Additionally, the elevated total cholesterol (TC) and low-density lipoprotein-C (LDL-C) in the L-NAME group were decreased by atorvastatin administration. TC and LDL-C were positively correlated with ox-LDL and LHP and negatively correlated with PON1 in all groups. High-density lipoprotein-C (HDL-C) was negatively correlated with ox-LDL. Conclusion. PON1 prevents LDL oxidation and inactivates LDL-derived oxidized phospholipids; its activity showed a pronounced decrease in the L-NAME treatment group and was increased in the atorvastatin group. Based on our findings, we concluded that the atorvastatin had HDL-related antioxidant activity as well as lipid-lowering properties.Scandinavian journal of clinical and laboratory investigation 09/2013; · 1.38 Impact Factor