Volkow ND, Wise RA. How can drug addiction help us understand obesity? Nat Neurosci 8: 555-560

National Institute on Drug Abuse, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA.
Nature Neuroscience (Impact Factor: 16.1). 06/2005; 8(5):555-60. DOI: 10.1038/nn1452
Source: PubMed


To the degree that drugs and food activate common reward circuitry in the brain, drugs offer powerful tools for understanding the neural circuitry that mediates food-motivated habits and how this circuitry may be hijacked to cause appetitive behaviors to go awry.

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Available from: Roy Alfred Wise,
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    • "HFHS foods and drugs are used to regulate emotional states and cope with stress (Epel, Lapidus, McEwen, & Brownell, 2001; Sinha, 2007). Individuals with substance use disorders and those who overconsume HFHS foods report increased craving in response to relevant cues (Volkow & Wise, 2005) and display hyperactivity of the limbic system in response to environmental cues and consumption of both HFHS foods and drugs (Gearhardt et al., 2011; Volkow & Wise, 2005). Therefore, applying paradigms used in drug addiction research to the study of HFHS food consumption has the potential to inform our understanding of the motivational processes that influence consumption. "
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    ABSTRACT: Eating patterns that lead to overconsumption of high fat, high sugar (HFHS) foods share similar features with addictive behaviors. Application of addiction paradigms, such as stress inductions, cue reactivity and behavioral economic assessments, to the study of motivation for HFHS food consumption may be a promising means of understanding food consumption. To date, few studies have investigated the interaction of stress and environmental cues on craving, and no study leveraged the state relative reinforcing value of foods (RRVfood) under varying conditions of affective states, the foci of the current study. This study used a mixed factorial design (Mood Induction: Neutral, Stress; Cues: Neutral, Food) with repeated measures on time (Baseline, Post-Mood Induction, Post-Cue Exposure). Participants (N=133) were community adults who endorsed liking of HFHS snacks but denied eating pathology. The primary DVs were subjective craving and RRVfood. Negative and positive affect (NA, PA), the amount of food consumed, and latency to first bite were also examined. Participants in the Stress condition reported no change in craving or RRVfood. Exposure to food cues significantly increased participants' craving and RRVfood, but an interaction of stress and cues was not present. Participants did not differ on how many calories they consumed based on exposure to stress or food cues, but participants in the food cues condition had a shorter latency to the first bite of food. This study highlights the importance of environmental cues in food motivation. It also demonstrates the utility of using RRVfood to further characterize food motivation. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
    Appetite 05/2015; 92. DOI:10.1016/j.appet.2015.05.027 · 2.69 Impact Factor
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    • "High impulsivity predicts food addiction C Velázquez-Sánchez et al (Davis et al, 2011; Gearhardt et al, 2009; Smith and Robbins, 2013; Volkow and Wise, 2005). Remarkably, our results reveal that high trait impulsivity is a risk factor, which can predict the individual susceptibility to the addictive properties of highly palatable foods. "

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    • "It is still unclear whether these neural features could serve as vulnerability factors for BD in individuals with metabolic disorders and/or high BMI. Thus far the dysregulation of the reward system circuits and dopaminergic receptor activity in obesity may be the most compelling piece of evidence linking food intake and mood regulation in obese individuals at risk of developing BD [52] [53] [54] "
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    ABSTRACT: Recent evidence shows an important relationship between metabolic disturbances and bipolar disorder (BD). However, it is still unclear whether such metabolic disturbances are only a consequence or to some extent the precipitating factors for health problems and maladaptive behaviors observed in BD. Because both metabolic disturbances and BD are medical conditions sharing common alterations in multiple biomarkers, it is plausible to hypothesize that metabolic disturbances may be considered to some extent as a major vulnerability factor in the latent phase of BD for some young adults. In line with this hypothesis , obesity may be regarded as a major driving force for prevalent cardio-metabolic disorders encountered within the early stages of BD. Likewise, premorbid metabolic disturbances as a whole may be considered as a potential source for vulnerability to develop BD. In addition, a synergistic relationship between obesity and metabolic disturbances associated with a premorbid disruption of biological rhythms may also lead to BD. Therefore, we postulate that metabolic disturbances may serve as a specific marker of premorbid illness activity in some people at risk for BD. Future prospective studies should focus on validating metabolic disturbances as vulnerability factors within the staging model of BD.
    Iranian Journal of Medical Hypotheses and Ideas 01/2015; 84(4). DOI:10.1016/j.mehy.2015.01.016
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