Risk indicators of periodontal disease in older Thai adults.
ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to identify risk indicators for periodontitis using cross-sectional data from a group of older Thai adults.
The study group consisted of 2,005 individuals, aged 50 to 73 years old. They received detailed medical examinations and periodontal examinations including plaque score, probing depth, and clinical attachment level. These individuals were categorized into mild, moderate, or severe periodontitis if mean clinical attachment level was <2.5 mm, 2.5 to 3.9 mm, or > or = 4.0 mm, respectively. The degree of association between the severity of periodontitis and various independent variables was investigated using multinomial logistic regression analysis.
The percentage of subjects classified as mild, moderate, and severe periodontitis was 30.5, 53.6, and 15.9, respectively. The prevalence of severe periodontitis was higher in males and increased with age. In univariate analysis, older subjects, males, less educated persons, persons with lower income, persons with higher plaque score, smokers, drinkers, and diabetics were more likely to have both moderate and severe periodontitis. In multivariate analysis, males, less educated persons, persons with higher plaque score, and current smokers were more likely to have moderate periodontitis. Three additional factors including older age, former smokers, and diabetes significantly increased the odds for having severe periodontitis. Income, alcohol consumption, body mass index, and waist circumference had no significant effects on periodontal disease severity in the multivariate model.
Our data suggest that age, gender, education, oral hygiene status, smoking, and diabetes are significantly associated with periodontal disease severity in this study group. Longitudinal studies will establish whether these variables are true risk factors.
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ABSTRACT: The scope of this study was to conduct a systematic review of the studies on the association between obesity and periodontitis. The methods applied included a literature search strategy and selection of studies using inclusion and exclusion in accordance with the criteria for characteristics of the studies and meta-analysis. The research was conducted in the PubMed, Embase and Lilacs databases through 2010. Selected papers were on studies on humans investigating whether or not obesity is a risk factor for periodontitis. Of the 822 studies identified, 31 studies met the inclusion criteria and were included in this meta-analysis. The risk of periodontitis was associated with obesity (or had a tendency for this) in 25 studies, though it was not associated in 6 studies. The meta-analysis showed a significant association with obesity and periodontitis (OR = 1.30 [95% Confidence Interval (CI), 1.25 - 1.35]) and with mean Body Mass Index (BMI) and periodontal disease (mean difference = 2.75). Obesity was associated with periodontitis, however the risk factors that aggravate these diseases should be better clarified to elucidate the direction of this association. Working with paired samples and avoiding confusion factors may contribute to homogeneity between the studies.Ciência & Saúde Coletiva 06/2014; 19(6):1763-1772. DOI:10.1590/1413-81232014196.13482013 · 0.40 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Objective Investigate the association between the frequency of alcohol consumption and periodontitis. Moreover, evaluate the influence of biological, behavioural, and social risk variables in this association.Methods Sample was comprised by 542 subjects of both genders, 35–55 years of age, who underwent a complete periodontal examination, and was divided into four groups according to the frequency of alcohol use, based on alcohol use disorders identification test (AUDIT) and Cut-down, Annoyed, Guilty, Eye-opener (CAGE) instruments: (1) no or occasional alcohol use (NA), (2) moderate alcohol use (MA), (3) intense alcohol use (IA) and (4) alcohol dependence (DA). Associations between the occurrence of periodontitis and potential risk variables were analysed by univariate and multivariate logistic regression stratified by smoking status when appropriate.ResultsThe prevalence of periodontitis in NA, MA, IA and DA groups were 17.2%, 24.0%, 29.6% and 53%, respectively. Alcohol odds ratio (OR) estimates significantly increased with an increase in consumption frequency (DA>IA>MA>NA) and were approximately two times higher in smokers (OR = 3.43 to 7.91) compared to non-smokers (OR = 1.22 to 3.02).Conclusion Occurrence of periodontitis among alcohol users were high and the frequency of alcohol consumption increased the odds of periodontitis incrementally mainly in smokers.Journal Of Clinical Periodontology 10/2011; 39(2):115 - 122. DOI:10.1111/j.1600-051X.2011.01809.x · 3.61 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to determine whether an association existed between chronic systemic diseases/conditions, risk factors common in old age, and the extent and severity of chronic periodontal disease. Sociodemographic and lifestyle characteristics were examined by contrasting rural, urban-marginal, and urban social environments in Central Mexico. Data were analysed with Analysis of Variance, chi2 tests, and multivariable logistic regression. A total of 473 adults 60 years old and over were interviewed; 315 were also examined and underwent laboratory assays (participation rate, 66%); women, 62%; mean age 73+/-8 years; 23% edentulous. The distribution of periodontitis by sociodemographic variables showed differences across locales (73% low-urban, 57% middle-urban, 29% rural). The regression model indicated that periodontitis was more frequently associated with low-urban locale, higher systolic blood pressure, higher body mass index, and worse calculus readings, with an interaction whereby being obese and having a high calculus index was associated with a high probability of having periodontitis. Overall periodontal conditions were fair. While we identified oral, systemic, and social variables that modulated the experience of periodontitis, it would appear that urban, low social class elders appeared to have worse periodontal conditions.Journal Of Clinical Periodontology 04/2006; 33(3):184-94. DOI:10.1111/j.1600-051X.2006.00897.x · 3.61 Impact Factor