Toward a molecular understanding of the structure-function of ryanodine receptor Ca2+ release channels: perspectives from recombinant expression systems.

Wales Heart Research Institute, Department of Cardiology, College of Medicine, Cardiff University, UK CF14 4XN.
Cell Biochemistry and Biophysics (Impact Factor: 1.91). 02/2005; 42(2):197-222. DOI: 10.1385/CBB:42:2:197
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Identification of the genetic basis of human diseases linked to dysfunctional free calcium (Ca2+) signaling has triggered an explosion of interest in the functional characterization of the molecular components regulating intracellular Ca2+ homeostasis. There is a growing appreciation of the central role of intracellular ryanodine-sensitive Ca2+ release channel (RyR) regulation in skeletal and cardiac muscle pathologies, including malignant hyperthermia, heart failure, and sudden cardiac death. The use of cloned RyR isoforms and recombinant expression techniques has greatly facilitated the elucidation of the molecular basis of RyR Ca2+ release functionality. This review will focus on the recombinant techniques used in the functional characterization of recombinant RyR isoforms and the insights that these approaches have yielded in unraveling the mechanistic basis of RyR channel functionality.

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    ABSTRACT: Ion channels underlie the electrical activity of cells. Calcium channels have a unique functional role, because not only do they participate in this activity, they form the means bywhich electrical signals are converted to responses within the cell. Calcium concentrations in the cytoplasm of cells are maintained at a low level, and calcium channels activate quickly such that the opening of ion channels can rapidly change the cytoplasmic environment. Once inside the cell, calcium acts as a “second messenger” prompting responses by binding to a variety of calcium sensitive proteins. Calcium channels are known to play an important role in stimulating muscle contraction, in neurotransmitter secretion, gene regulation, activating other ion channels, controlling the shape and duration of action potentials and many other processes. Since calcium plays an integral role in cell function, and since excessive quantities can be toxic, its movement is tightly regulated and controlled through a large variety of mechanisms.
    12/2006: pages 241-299;
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    ABSTRACT: The ryanodine receptor (RyR) is a widely expressed intracellular calcium (Ca(2+))-release channel regulating processes such as muscle contraction and neurotransmission. Snapin, a ubiquitously expressed SNARE-associated protein, has been implicated in neurotransmission. Here, we report the identification of snapin as a novel RyR2-interacting protein. Snapin binds to a 170-residue predicted ryanodine receptor cytosolic loop (RyR2 residues 4596-4765), containing a hydrophobic segment required for snapin interaction. Ryanodine receptor binding of snapin is not isoform specific and is conserved in homologous RyR1 and RyR3 fragments. Consistent with peptide fragment studies, snapin interacts with the native ryanodine receptor from skeletal muscle, heart and brain. The snapin-RyR1 association appears to sensitise the channel to Ca(2+) activation in [(3)H]ryanodine-binding studies. Deletion analysis indicates that the ryanodine receptor interacts with the snapin C-terminus, the same region as the SNAP25-binding site. Competition experiments with native ryanodine receptor and SNAP25 suggest that these two proteins share an overlapping binding site on snapin. Thus, regulation of the association between ryanodine receptor and snapin might constitute part of the elusive molecular mechanism by which ryanodine-sensitive Ca(2+) stores modulate neurosecretion.
    Journal of Cell Science 07/2006; 119(Pt 11):2386-97. · 5.88 Impact Factor


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May 28, 2014