Early supported discharge for stroke patients improves clinical outcome. Does it also reduce use of health services and costs? One-year follow-up of a randomized controlled trial.
ABSTRACT An early supported discharge service (ESD) appears to be a promising alternative to conventional care. The aim of this trial was to compare the use of health services and costs with traditional stroke care during a one-year follow-up.
Three hundred and twenty patients were randomly allocated either to ordinary stroke unit care or stroke unit care combined with ESD which was coordinated by a mobile team. The use of all health services was recorded prospectively; its costs were measured as service costs and represent a combination of calculated average costs and tariffs. Hospital expenses were measured as costs per inpatient day and adjusted for the DRG.
There was a reduction in average number of inpatient days at 52 weeks in favour of the ESD group (p = 0.012), and a non-significant reduction in total mean service costs in the ESD group (EUR 18,937/EUR 21,824). ESD service seems to be most cost-effective for patients with a moderate stroke.
Acute stroke unit care combined with an ESD programme may reduce the length of institutional stay without increasing the costs of outpatient rehabilitation compared with traditional stroke care.
SourceAvailable from: Hans Morten Lossius[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Background: Recently, a strategy for treating stroke directly at the emergency site was developed. It was based on the use of an ambulance equipped with a scanner, a point-of-care laboratory, and telemedicine capabilities (Mobile Stroke Unit). Despite demonstrating a marked reduction in the delay to thrombolysis, this strategy is criticized because of potentially unacceptable costs. Methods: We related the incremental direct costs of prehospital stroke treatment based on data of the first trial on this concept to one year direct cost savings taken from published research results. Key parameters were configuration of emergency medical service personnel, operating distance, and population density. Model parameters were varied to cover 5 different relevant emergency medical service scenarios. Additionally, the effects of operating distance and population density on benefit-cost ratios were analyzed. Results: Benefits of the concept of prehospital stroke treatment outweighed its costs with a benefit-cost ratio of 1.96 in the baseline experimental setting. The benefit-cost ratio markedly increased with the reduction of the staff and with higher population density. Maximum benefit-cost ratios between 2.16 and 6.85 were identified at optimum operating distances in a range between 43.01 and 64.88 km (26.88 and 40.55 miles). Our model implies that in different scenarios the Mobile Stroke Unit strategy is cost-efficient starting from an operating distance of 15.98 km (9.99 miles) or from a population density of 79 inhabitants per km(2) (202 inhabitants per square mile). Conclusion: This study indicates that based on a one-year benefit-cost analysis that prehospital treatment of acute stroke is highly cost-effective across a wide range of possible scenarios. It is the highest when the staff size of the Mobile Stroke Unit can be reduced, for example, by the use of telemedical support from hospital experts. Although efficiency is positively related to population density, benefit-cost ratios can be greater than 1 even in rural settings. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.Cerebrovascular Diseases 12/2014; 38(6):457-463. DOI:10.1159/000371427 · 3.70 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Given the high incidence of stroke worldwide and the large costs associated with the use of health care resources, it is important to define cost-effective and evidence-based services for stroke rehabilitation. The objective of this review was to assess the evidence on the relative cost or cost-effectiveness of all integrated care arrangements for stroke patients compared to usual care. Integrated care was defined as a multidisciplinary tool to improve the quality and efficiency of evidence-based care and is used as a communication tool between professionals to manage and standardize the outcome-orientated care. A systematic literature review of cost analyses and economic evaluations was performed. Study characteristics, study quality and results were summarized. Fifteen studies met the inclusion criteria; six on early-supported discharge services, four on home-based rehabilitation, two on stroke units and three on stroke services. The follow-up per patient was generally short; one year or less. The comparators and the scope of included costs varied between studies. Six out of six studies provided evidence that the costs of early-supported discharge are less than for conventional care, at similar health outcomes. Home-based rehabilitation is unlikely to lead to cost-savings, but achieves better health outcomes. Care in stroke units is more expensive than conventional care, but leads to improved health outcomes. The cost-effectiveness studies on integrated stroke services suggest that they can reduce costs. For future research we recommend to focus on the moderate and severely affected patients, include stroke severity as variable, adopt a societal costing perspective and include long-term costs and effects.International journal of integrated care 10/2012; 12:e193. · 1.26 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The importance of cognitive and physical functioning for nursing home admission among medically hospitalized older patients is rarely studied in a one-year follow-up perspective. This study aims to explore the association between patient characteristics and nursing home admission within one year after hospitalization in persons 65 years or more. A one-year longitudinal study. We included 463 (234 women) persons aged 65 years or more from internal medical wards in a rural area of Norway. Cognitive function was assessed using the Mini Mental State Examination; physical and instrumental functional status was assessed using the physical self-maintenance scale and instrumental activities of daily living scale of Lawton and Brody. Comorbidity was measured with the Charlson index. Admission to nursing home within one year (yes versus no) was analyzed using logistic regression analysis and Cox proportional hazard regression analysis. The mean age of the sample was 80.5 (SD 7.4) years, mean Mini Mental State Examination score was 24.1 (SD 3.8) (maximum score is 30). In adjusted analysis participants with cognitive impairment (a Mini Mental State Examination score <25) or impaired physical functioning at baseline had higher risk of admission to nursing home within one year (OR 3.0, 95%CI 1.5-6.2 and OR 3.5, 95%CI 1.8-9.6, respectively). The time before admission was also associated with cognitive impairment and impaired physical functioning in the adjusted analysis (HR 2.6 95%CI 1.4-4.8 and HR 3.7, 95%CI 1.5-8.9, respectively). Impaired cognitive and physical functioning increased the risk for nursing home admission within one year after hospitalization. However, putative regressors, such as education and social network were not included in the analysis.PLoS ONE 01/2014; 9(1):e86116. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0086116 · 3.53 Impact Factor