Infection of human CD34+ progenitor cells with Bartonella henselae results in intraerythrocytic presence of B. henselae.
ABSTRACT Although there is evidence that endothelial cells are important targets for human pathogenic Bartonella species, the primary niche of infection is unknown. Here we elucidated whether human CD34+ hematopoietic progenitor cells (HPCs) internalize B. henselae and may serve as a potential niche of the pathogen. We showed that B. henselae does not adhere to or invade human erythrocytes. In contrast, B. henselae invades and persists in HPCs as shown by gentamicin protection assays, confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM), and electron microscopy (EM). Fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) analysis of glycophorin A expression revealed that erythroid differentiation of HPCs was unaffected following infection with B. henselae. The number of intracellular B. henselae continuously increased over a 13-day period. When HPCs were infected with B. henselae immediately after isolation, intracellular bacteria were subsequently detectable in differentiated erythroid cells on day 9 and day 13 after infection, as shown by CLSM, EM, and FACS analysis. Our data provide, for the first time, evidence that a bacterial pathogen is able to infect and persist in differentiating HPCs, and suggest that HPCs might serve as a potential primary niche in Bartonella infections.
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ABSTRACT: Each Bartonella species appears to be highly adapted to one or a limited number of reservoir hosts, in which it establishes long-lasting intraerythrocytic bacteremia as the hallmark of infection. Recently, we identified Trw as the bacterial system involved in recognition of erythrocytes according to their animal origin. The T4SS Trw is characterized by a multiprotein complex that spans the inner and outer bacterial membranes, and possesses a hypothetical pilus structure. TrwJ, I, H and trwL are present in variable copy numbers in different species and the multiple copies of trwL and trwJ in the Bartonella trw locus are considered to encode variant forms of surface-exposed pilus components. We therefore aimed to identify which of the candidate Trw pilus components were located on the bacterial surface and involved in adhesion to erythrocytes, together with their erythrocytic receptor. Using different technologies (electron microscopy, phage display, invasion inhibition assay, far western blot), we found that only TrwJ1 and TrwJ2 were expressed and localized at the cell surface of B. birtlesii and had the ability to bind to mouse erythrocytes, and that their receptor was band3, one of the major outer-membrane glycoproteins of erythrocytes, (anion exchanger). According to these results, we propose that the interaction between TrwJ1, TrwJ2 and band 3 leads to the critical host-specific adherence of Bartonella to its host cells, erythrocytes.PLoS ONE 01/2012; 7(7):e41447. · 4.09 Impact Factor
Emerging Infectious Diseases 12/2009; 15(12):2080-6. · 6.79 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Cats appear to be the primary reservoir host for Bartonella koehlerae, an alpha Proteobacteria that is most likely transmitted among cat populations by fleas (Ctenocephalides felis). Bartonella koehlerae has caused endocarditis in a dog and in one human patient from Israel, but other clinically relevant reports involving this bacterium are lacking. Despite publication of numerous, worldwide epidemiological studies designed to determine the prevalence of Bartonella spp. bacteremia in cats, B. koehlerae has never been isolated using conventional blood agar plates. To date, successful isolation of B. koehlerae from cats and from the one human endocarditis patient has consistently required the use of chocolate agar plates. In this study, Bartonella koehlerae bacteremia was documented in eight immunocompetent patients by PCR amplification and DNA sequencing, either prior to or after enrichment blood culture using Bartonella alpha Proteobacteria growth medium. Presenting symptoms most often included fatigue, insomnia, joint pain, headache, memory loss, and muscle pain. Four patients were also infected with Bartonella vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii genotype II. After molecular documentation of B. koehlerae infection in these patients, a serological test was developed and serum samples were tested retrospectively. Bartonella koehlerae antibodies were not detected (titers < 1:16) in 30 healthy human control sera, whereas five of eight patient samples had B. koehlerae antibody titers of 1:64 or greater. Although biased by a study population consisting of individuals with extensive arthropod and animal exposure, the results of this study suggest that B. koehlerae bacteremia is more common in immunocompetent people than has been previously suspected. Future studies should more thoroughly define modes of transmission and risk factors for acquiring infection with B. koehlerae. In addition, studies are needed to determine if B. koehlerae is a cause or cofactor in the development of arthritis, peripheral neuropathies or tachyarrhythmias in patients.Parasites & Vectors 01/2010; 3:76. · 2.94 Impact Factor