Article

Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) in cognitive neuroscience of the primate brain

UCLA Neuropsychiatric Institute, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1759, USA.
NeuroImage (Impact Factor: 6.36). 06/2005; 26(1):215-20. DOI: 10.1016/j.neuroimage.2005.01.055
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT We describe the use of near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) as a suitable means of assessing hemodynamic changes in the cerebral cortex of awake and behaving monkeys. NIRS can be applied to animals performing cognitive tasks in conjunction with electrophysiological methods, thus offering the possibility of investigating cortical neurovascular coupling in cognition. Because it imposes fewer constraints on behavior than fMRI, NIRS appears more practical than fMRI for certain studies of cognitive neuroscience on the primate cortex. In the present study, NIRS and field potential signals were simultaneously recorded from the association cortex (posterior parietal and prefrontal) of monkeys performing two delay tasks, one spatial and the other non-spatial. Working memory was accompanied by an increase in oxygenated hemoglobin mirrored by a decrease in deoxygenated hemoglobin. Both the trends and the amplitudes of these changes differed by task and by area. Field potential records revealed slow negative potentials that preceded the task trials and persisted during their memory period. The negativity during that period was greater in prefrontal than in parietal cortex. Between tasks, the potential differences were less pronounced than the hemodynamic differences. The present feasibility study lays the groundwork for future correlative studies of cognitive function and neurovascular coupling in the primate.

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    • "In spite of these disadvantages, various studies show NIRS is a really powerful method of functional brain imaging. NIRS in combination with electrophysiological methods was applied to animals performing cognitive task (Fuster et al. 2005). A pain-induced blood flow and an itch-induced blood flow can be separated with NIRS (Lee et al. 2013). "
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    ABSTRACT: Background Working memory (WM) is a key function for various cognitive processes. Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) is a powerful technique for noninvasive functional imaging. However, a study has yet to be published on the application of NIRS for evaluating WM performance. The objective was to evaluate NIRS for measuring WM performance.Methods Subjects were trained to perform a visuospatial WM task. Eight channels on the lateral prefrontal cortex were analyzed. We asked the following three questions: (1) Does WM performance correlate with NIRS signal amplitudes? (2) What are the differences in NIRS amplitudes between correct- and incorrect-WM tasks? (3) Is there a correlation between WM performance and NIRS amplitudes in only correct-WM tasks?ResultsNIRS activation in all channels correlated with WM performance (P < 0.05). There was a statistically significant difference (P < 0.05) in seven channels between NIRS amplitude in correct- and incorrect-WM tasks. NIRS activation of the delay time averaged with only correct-WM tasks, correlated with WM performance in six channels (P < 0.05).Conclusions Subjects with better WM performance have higher levels of oxyhemoglobin activation compared with control trials in the WM delay time, and our results suggest that NIRS will be useful for measuring the WM performance.
    Brain and Behavior 07/2014; 4(4). DOI:10.1002/brb3.238
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    • "Then lock-in amplifiers are used to extract desired signals buried in noise. According to the different spectral absorption property of HbO and Hb[4], the modified Beer-Lambert Law is used to calculate the concentration changes of HbO, Hb[5]. fNIRS system can be used in research fileds such as brain cognitive, disease diagnosis, as well as Brain Computer Interface (BCI) research[6] [7]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Lock-in amplifier is particularly important in the fNIRS-based system, because the lock-in amplifier can recover the low-level signals buried in significant amounts of noise. But the price of lock-in amplifier is very expensive. This paper presented a software method for designing digital lock-in amplifier. Compared with analogue lock-in amplifier, results show that software lock-in amplifier is feasible for experimental research and can replace the expensive analogue lock-in amplifier.
    Applied Mechanics and Materials 07/2013; 333-335:535-539. DOI:10.4028/www.scientific.net/AMM.333-335.535 · 0.15 Impact Factor
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    • "However, caution should be exercised in interpreting the data measured in waking conditions because the obtained signals might be contaminated by restraint-related stress and discomfort or enhanced arousal due to recording noises and motion artifacts (Lahti et al, 1998, 1999). Optical intrinsic signal (OIS) imaging techniques, including near infrared spectroscopy (Fuster et al, 2005; Obrig and Villringer, 2003) and diffuse optical imaging (Franceschini et al, 2008), also allow for mapping the evoked hemodynamic changes (e.g., blood oxygenation and volume) under both anesthetized (Devor et al, 2005; Jones et al, 2001) and unanesthetized conditions (Berwick et al, 2002; "
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    ABSTRACT: Anesthesia has broad actions that include changing neuronal excitability, vascular reactivity, and other baseline physiologies and eventually modifies the neurovascular coupling relationship. Here, we review the effects of anesthesia on the spatial propagation, temporal dynamics, and quantitative relationship between the neural and vascular responses to cortical stimulation. Previous studies have shown that the onset latency of evoked cerebral blood flow (CBF) changes is relatively consistent across anesthesia conditions compared with variations in the time-to-peak. This finding indicates that the mechanism of vasodilation onset is less dependent on anesthesia interference, while vasodilation dynamics are subject to this interference. The quantitative coupling relationship is largely influenced by the type and dosage of anesthesia, including the actions on neural processing, vasoactive signal transmission, and vascular reactivity. The effects of anesthesia on the spatial gap between the neural and vascular response regions are not fully understood and require further attention to elucidate the mechanism of vascular control of CBF supply to the underlying focal and surrounding neural activity. The in-depth understanding of the anesthesia actions on neurovascular elements allows for better decision-making regarding the anesthetics used in specific models for neurovascular experiments and may also help elucidate the signal source issues in hemodynamic-based neuroimaging techniques.
    Journal of cerebral blood flow and metabolism: official journal of the International Society of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism 04/2012; 32(7):1233-47. DOI:10.1038/jcbfm.2012.50 · 5.34 Impact Factor
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