Neutralisation of TGF beta or binding of VLA-4 to fibronectin prevents rat tendon adhesion following transection.
ABSTRACT Following tendon injury, severe loss of function often occurs either as a result of obliteration of the synovial canal with fibrous scar tissue or from rupture of the repaired tendon. The role of cell engineering in tendon repair is to promote strong and rapid healing of tendon whilst at the same time facilitating rapid reconstitution of the synovial canal. Modification of the immediate inflammatory response around healing tendon has been found to be of value. Experimentally this has been achieved by neutralisation of transforming growth factor-beta over the first 3 days following injury, or by blockade of inflammatory cell binding to the CS-1 locus on fibronectin with an anti-VLA-4 antibody, or with the synthetic VLA-4 inhibitor, CS-1 peptide, in a rat model of tendon transection. It is concluded from this pilot study that the treatments described hold promise in improving outcomes of the common clinical problem of tendon injury in man.
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ABSTRACT: Graft arteriopathy, a leading cause of cardiac allograft failure, is associated with increased intimal smooth muscle cells, inflammatory cells, and accumulation of extracellular matrix. We hypothesized that cellular fibronectin plays a pivotal role in the progression of the allograft arteriopathy by directing the transendothelial trafficking of inflammatory cells through interaction of the connecting segment-1 (CS1) motif with the very late antigen-4 (VLA-4) integrin, and tested this in vivo using a blocking peptide. Cholesterol-fed rabbits underwent heterotopic cardiac transplantation without immunosuppression. The treatment group (n = 7) received a synthetic CS1 peptide (1 mg/kg per d, subcutaneously), and the controls (n = 7) received an inactive peptide (1 mg/kg per d, subcutaneously). At 7-8 d after transplantation, hearts were harvested and sectioned for morphometric analysis and immunohistochemical studies. We observed a > 50% decrease in the incidence (P < 0.001) and severity (P < 0.001) of donor coronary artery intimal thickening in the CS1-treated compared with the control group. These findings correlated with reduced infiltration of T cells (P < 0.05), a trend toward decreased expression of adhesion molecules (P < 0.06), and less accumulation of fibronectin (P < 0.03). Our data suggest that the VLA-4-fibronectin interaction is critical to the progression of the allograft arteriopathy by perpetuating the immune-inflammatory response in the vessel wall.Journal of Clinical Investigation 07/1995; 95(6):2601-10. · 12.81 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Macrophage activation--enhanced capacity to kill, in a cell that otherwise mostly scavenges--is essential for host survival from infection and contributes to containment of tumours. Both microbes and tumour cells, therefore, may be under pressure to inhibit or reverse the activation of macrophages. This reasoning led to the demonstration of macrophage deactivating factors from both microbes and tumour cells. In some circumstances the host itself probably requires the ability to deactivate macrophages. Macrophages are essential to the healing of wounds and repair of tissues damaged by inflammation. Yet the cytotoxic products of the activated macrophages can damage endothelium, fibroblasts, smooth muscle and parenchymal cells (reviewed in ref. 6). Thus, after an inflammatory site has been sterilized, the impact of macrophage activation on the host might shift from benefit to detriment. These concepts led us to search for macrophage deactivating effects among polypeptide growth factors that regulate angiogenesis, fibrogenesis and other aspects of tissue repair. Among 11 such factors, two proteins that are 71% similar proved to be potent macrophage deactivators: these are transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF-beta 1) and TGF-beta 2.Nature 08/1988; · 38.60 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: We studied fibroblast activity during tendon healing with an in vitro tendon culture model. Tendons were embedded in a translucent collagen gel matrix whose porous nature permitted free nutrient diffusion, fibroblast migration out of the tendon, and microphotographic documentation of fibroblast activity. Experiments were performed using one or more tendons cultured in the same collagen gel. We identified three zones of fibroblast activity in the gel. Zone I was an area of randomly dispersed cells directly adjacent to the tendon where collagen synthesis and remodeling were probably taking place. In zone II, spindle-shaped fibroblasts were aligned pointing away from the cut tendon end forming a sunburst-like aggregate of cells. Zone II fibroblasts were responsible for formation of migration trails by exerting a mechanical force on the collagen matrix, which was evident as a local gel contraction. Zone III was the leading edge of the sunburst populated by the fastest moving fibroblasts, which responded to guidance by other cut tendon ends. We speculate that the collagen gel used in the culture system may help maintain a chemotactic concentration gradient that allows fibroblasts to locate other distal cut tendon surfaces also embedded in the collagen gel.The Journal Of Hand Surgery 10/1994; 19(5):769-76. · 1.57 Impact Factor