Age-progressing cognitive impairments and neuropathology in transgenic CRND8 mice
ABSTRACT Patients with Alzheimer's disease suffer from progressive cognitive impairments and show distinct post-mortem neuropathology, including beta-amyloid plaques. Transgenic (Tg) CRND8 mice carry a mutated human amyloid precursor protein gene and show age-related increases in beta-amyloid production and plaque deposition. It was previously reported that during the early stages of plaque deposition, Tg CRND8 mice demonstrated Morris maze impairments. However, it is unknown if Tg mice would be impaired at an earlier age prior to plaque deposition or more impaired at a later age with more extensive plaque deposition. In the current study, we describe Tg CRND8 age-progressing beta-amyloid neuropathology and cognitive abilities in greater detail. At all ages, Tg mice showed normal short-term memory in the Y-maze. Pre-plaque Tg and age-matched Non-Tg mice did not differ in learning the spatial Morris water maze. However, both early and late plaque Tg mice showed impairments during acquisition. In addition, although early plaque Tg mice performed well in the probe trial, late plaque Tg mice demonstrated impaired probe trial performance. Therefore compared to their Non-Tg littermates, Tg CRND8 mice demonstrate cognitive impairments that progressed with age and seemed to coincide with the onset of beta-amyloid plaque deposition.
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ABSTRACT: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is an age-related, progressive and irreversible neurodegenerative disease that results in the loss of selected neurons throughout the basal forebrain, amygdala, hippocampus, and cortical area as well as progressive deficits of cognition and memory. The subgranular zone (SGZ) of the hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG) is one of the regions where adult neurogenesis occurs in mammals, including humans and non-human primates. The new granule cells, which are the primary excitatory neurons in the DG, contribute to the processes of learning and memory. The changes in neurogenesis observed during the initial stages and progression of AD suggest that the modulation of the new production of neurons at neurogenic sites may exert profound effects on hippocampal function. Bone morphogenetic protein-4 (BMP4) and its antagonist Noggin contribute to the modulation of neurogenesis in the adult hippocampus, thereby affecting hippocampal function. This review focuses on the role of BMP4 and Noggin in the control of the stem and precursor cells in the adult hippocampus during AD and their potential as a possible therapeutic strategy for AD sufferers. It is helpful to extend the understanding of the control of stem cells in the normal and diseased hippocampus.Ageing research reviews 06/2012; 12(1):157-164. DOI:10.1016/j.arr.2012.05.002 · 7.63 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The TgCRND8 mouse model of Alzheimer's disease exhibits progressive cortical and hippocampal β-amyloid accumulation, resulting in plaque pathology and spatial memory impairment by 3 months of age. We tested whether TgCRND8 cognitive function is disrupted prior to the appearance of macroscopic plaques in an object recognition task. We found profound deficits in 8-week-old mice. Animals this age were not impaired on the Morris water maze task. TgCRND8 and littermate controls did not differ in their duration of object exploration or optokinetic responses. Thus, visual and motor dysfunction did not confound the phenotype. Object memory deficits point to the frontal cortex and hippocampus as early targets of functional disruption. Indeed, we observed altered levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) in these brain regions of preplaque TgCRND8 mice. Our findings suggest that object recognition provides an early index of cognitive impairment associated with amyloid exposure and reduced brain-derived neurotrophic factor expression in the TgCRND8 mouse.Neurobiology of aging 05/2012; 33(3):555-63. DOI:10.1016/j.neurobiolaging.2010.04.003 · 4.85 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common origin of dementia in the elderly. Although the cause of AD remains unknown, several factors have been identified that appear to play a critical role in the development of this debilitating disorder. In particular, amyloid precursor protein (APP), tau hyperphosphorylation, and the secretase enzymes, have become the focal point of recent research. Over the last two decades, several transgenic and non-transgenic animal models have been developed to elucidate the mechanistic aspects of AD and to validate potential therapeutic targets. Transgenic rodent models over-expressing human β-amyloid precursor protein (β-APP) and mutant forms of tau have become precious tools to study and understand the pathogenesis of AD at the molecular, cellular and behavioural levels, and to test new therapeutic agents. Nevertheless, none of the transgenic models of AD recapitulate fully all of the pathological features of the disease. Octodon degu, a South American rodent has been recently found to spontaneously develop neuropathological signs of AD in old age. This review aims to address the limitations and clinical relevance of transgenic rodent models in AD, and to highlight the potential for O. degu as a natural model for the study of AD neuropathology.Journal of Neural Transmission 11/2011; 119(2):173-95. DOI:10.1007/s00702-011-0731-5 · 2.87 Impact Factor