[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Statins do not always decrease coronary heart disease mortality, which was speculated based on increased serum plant sterols observed during statin treatment. To evaluate plant sterol atherogenicity, we fed low density lipoprotein-receptor deficient (LDLr(+/-)) mice for 35 weeks with Western diets (control) alone or enriched with atorvastatin or atorvastatin plus plant sterols or stanols. Atorvastatin decreased serum cholesterol by 22% and lesion area by 57%. Adding plant sterols or stanols to atorvastatin decreased serum cholesterol by 39% and 41%. Cholesterol-standardized serum plant sterol concentrations increased by 4- to 11-fold during sterol plus atorvastatin treatment versus stanol plus atorvastatin treatment. However, lesion size decreased similarly in the sterol plus atorvastatin (-99% vs. control) and the stanol plus atorvastatin (-98%) groups, with comparable serum cholesterol levels, suggesting that increased plant sterol concentrations are not atherogenic. Our second study confirms this conclusion. Compared with lesions after a 33 week atherogenic period, lesion size further increased in controls (+97%) during 12 more weeks on the diet, whereas 12 weeks with the addition of plant sterols or stanols decreased lesion size (66% and 64%). These findings indicate that in LDLr(+/-) mice 1) increased cholesterol-standardized serum plant sterol concentrations are not atherogenic, 2) adding plant sterols/stanols to atorvastatin further inhibits lesion formation, and 3) plant sterols/stanols inhibit the progression or even induce the regression of existing lesions.
The Journal of Lipid Research 01/2007; 47(12):2762-71. · 4.39 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A number of studies using various imaging techniques have demonstrated that intensive lipid lowering with statins can halt or delay the progression of atherosclerosis and even, in some cases, lead to plaque regression. Improvements in atheroma burden with intensive statin therapy appear to be related not just to decreasing low-density lipoprotein cholesterol but also to anti-inflammatory and antiproliferative effects. Clinical trial results also suggest that achieving low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels even lower than those currently recommended can produce improved clinical outcomes across a range of patient types. Given this body of evidence, it appears appropriate to use intensive statin therapy to treat dyslipidemic patients at high risk for coronary heart disease.
Progress in Cardiovascular Nursing 02/2007; 22(4):207-13.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Some modern angioplasty techniques drastically affect the geometry of the plaque and the lumen, but have some inherent clinical and technical limitations.
A total of 101 Yucatan miniature swine were allocated to the three following groups (34 pigs into 60/15- to 70/40-nm silica-gold nanoparticles (NPs), 34 swine into ferromagnetic group with iron-bearing NPs and delivery in hand of magnetic fields, and 33 in a sirolimus stenting control). Animals in the nanogroup were subdivided further into four subsets according to the delivery approach: (1) Intracoronary infused circulating stem progenitor cells (SPCs), including SP(+) (side population) cells, (2) intracoronary infused, ultrasound-mediated, albumin-coated, gas-filled microbubbles, (3) CD73(+)105(+) SPCs in the composition of a bioengineered on-artery patch (cardiac surgery), (4) CD73(+)CD105(+) SPCs engrafted by manual subadventitial injection (cardiac surgery). NPs were detonated with a microwatt near-infrared (NIR) laser (821 nm, 35-44 W/cm(2) for 7 min of exposure).
Changes of the total atheroma volume (TAV; mm(3)) immediately after the laser irradiation at month 6 in the nanoshell, ferromagnetic, and control groups were -7.54%/-22.92%, -9.7%/-16.84%, and -10.5%/-7.06% (p<0.01), respectively, and in the subsets reached -2.79%/-21.92%, -6.26%/-15.24%, -4.6%/-31.21%, -16.5%/-23.3% (p<0.05), respectively. Some cases of atherothrombosis and distal embolism (23.5%) were documented only in the microbubbles subset. The impact of the therapy on the nonorganic part of the plaque-antiinflammative and antiapoptotic effects, signs of neovascularization, and restoration of artery function-were predominant in the observed subsets with SPCs (p<0.01).
Nanoburning, especially in combination with stem cell technologies, is a very challenging technique for altering advanced plaque and holds the promise of revolutionizing state-of-the-art interventional cardiology, assuring destruction of plaque and functional restoration of the vessel wall. It could potentially become the current mechanical and pharmacological treatment.
Rejuvenation Research 04/2012; 15(2):222-30. · 2.92 Impact Factor
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