Influence of microsomal triglyceride transfer protein promoter polymorphism -493 GT on fasting plasma triglyceride values interaction with treatment response to atorvastatin in subjects with heterozygous familial hypercholesterolaemia
Familial hypercholesterolaemia (FH) is an autosomal dominant disease characterized by elevated levels of low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C). Phenotypic expression is highly variable, being influenced by diet, age, gender, body mass index, apolipoprotein E genotype and type of LDL-receptor gene mutation. Microsomal triglyceride (TG) transfer protein (MTP) is a protein involved in lipid metabolism. Polymorphism MTP -493 GT has been shown to modulate lipid levels in several populations. To analyse the effect of this polymorphism in the lipid phenotype expression of FH and treatment response, we studied a sample of 222 Spanish FH patients, of whom 147 were studied before and after treatment with 20 mg of atorvastatin daily during 6 weeks. The variant was analysed by polymerase chain reaction amplification and single-strand confirmation polymorphism. Treatment reduced LDL-C, total cholesterol and TGs. Baseline fasting TGs and very-low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels were lower in female T allele carriers (TG: 111+/-51 mg/dl GG, 89+/-35 mg/dl GT, 83+/-26 mg/dl TT, P=0.022; very-low-density lipoprotein cholesterol: 24+/-13 mg/dl GG, 16+/-5 mg/dl GT, 17+/-5 mg/dl TT, P=0.018). Triglyceride response to atorvastatin was modulated by this polymorphism in men (P=0.009), but not in women, although differences between genotypes were maintained after treatment. In conclusion, the MTP -493 GT polymorphism modulates pre- and post-treatment plasma TG values of FH in Spanish subjects in a gender-specific way. Other environmental and genetic factors likely also modulate this response.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This report constitutes the seventh update of the human obesity gene map incorporating published results up to the end of October 2000. Evidence from the rodent and human obesity cases caused by single-gene mutations, Mendelian disorders exhibiting obesity as a clinical feature, quantitative trait loci uncovered in human genome-wide scans and in cross-breeding experiments in various animal models, and association and linkage studies with candidate genes and other markers are reviewed. Forty-seven human cases of obesity caused by single-gene mutations in six different genes have been reported in the literature to date. Twenty-four Mendelian disorders exhibiting obesity as one of their clinical manifestations have now been mapped. The number of different quantitative trait loci reported from animal models currently reaches 115. Attempts to relate DNA sequence variation in specific genes to obesity phenotypes continue to grow, with 130 studies reporting positive associations with 48 candidate genes. Finally, 59 loci have been linked to obesity indicators in genomic scans and other linkage study designs. The obesity gene map reveals that putative loci affecting obesity-related phenotypes can be found on all chromosomes except chromosome Y. A total of 54 new loci have been added to the map in the past 12 months and the number of genes, markers, and chromosomal regions that have been associated or linked with human obesity phenotypes is now above 250. Likewise, the number of negative studies, which are only partially reviewed here, is also on the rise.
Obesity research 02/2001; 9(2):135-69. DOI:10.1038/oby.2001.17 · 4.95 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This paper presents the 12th update of the human obesity gene map, which incorporates published results up to the end of October 2005. Evidence from single-gene mutation obesity cases, Mendelian disorders exhibiting obesity as a clinical feature, transgenic and knockout murine models relevant to obesity, quantitative trait loci (QTL) from animal cross-breeding experiments, association studies with candidate genes, and linkages from genome scans is reviewed. As of October 2005, 176 human obesity cases due to single-gene mutations in 11 different genes have been reported, 50 loci related to Mendelian syndromes relevant to human obesity have been mapped to a genomic region, and causal genes or strong candidates have been identified for most of these syndromes. There are 244 genes that, when mutated or expressed as transgenes in the mouse, result in phenotypes that affect body weight and adiposity. The number of QTLs reported from animal models currently reaches 408. The number of human obesity QTLs derived from genome scans continues to grow, and we now have 253 QTLs for obesity-related phenotypes from 61 genome-wide scans. A total of 52 genomic regions harbor QTLs supported by two or more studies. The number of studies reporting associations between DNA sequence variation in specific genes and obesity phenotypes has also increased considerably, with 426 findings of positive associations with 127 candidate genes. A promising observation is that 22 genes are each supported by at least five positive studies. The obesity gene map shows putative loci on all chromosomes except Y. The electronic version of the map with links to useful publications and relevant sites can be found at http://obesitygene.pbrc.edu.
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