Impact of phase ratio, polydimethylsiloxane volume and size, and sampling temperature and time on headspace sorptive extraction recovery of some volatile compounds in the essential oil field.
ABSTRACT This study evaluates concentration capability of headspace sorptive extraction (HSSE) and the influence of sampling conditions on HSSE recovery of an analyte. A standard mixture in water of six high-to-medium volatility analytes (isobutyl methyl ketone, 3-hexanol, isoamyl acetate, 1,8-cineole, linalool and carvone) was used to sample the headspace by HSSE with stir bars coated with different polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) volumes (20, 40, 55 and 110 microL, respectively), headspace vial volumes (8, 21.2, 40, 250 and 1000 mL), sampling temperatures (25, 50 and 75 degrees C) and sampling times (30, 60 and 120 min, and 4, 8 and 16 h). The concentration factors (CFs) of HSSE versus static headspace (S-HS) were also determined. Analytes sampled by the PDMS stir bars were recovered by thermal desorption (TDS) and analysed by capillary GC-MS. This study demonstrates how analyte recovery depends on its physico-chemical characteristics and affinity for PDMS (octanol-water partition coefficients), sampling temperatures (50 degrees C) and times (60 min), the volumes of headspace (40 mL) and of PDMS (in particular, for high volatility analytes). HSSE is also shown to be very effective for trace analysis. The HSSE CFs calculated versus S-HS with a 1000 mL headspace volumes at 25 degrees C during 4 h sampling ranged between 10(3) and 10(4) times for all analytes investigated while the limits of quantitation determined under the same conditions were in the nmol/L range.
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ABSTRACT: Volatile compounds comprise diverse chemical groups with wide-ranging sources and functions. These compounds originate from major pathways of secondary metabolism in many organisms and play essential roles in chemical ecology in both plant and animal kingdoms. In past decades, sampling methods and instrumentation for the analysis of complex volatile mixtures have improved; however, design and implementation of database tools to process and store the complex datasets have lagged behind. The volatile compound BinBase (vocBinBase) is an automated peak annotation and database system developed for the analysis of GC-TOF-MS data derived from complex volatile mixtures. The vocBinBase DB is an extension of the previously reported metabolite BinBase software developed to track and identify derivatized metabolites. The BinBase algorithm uses deconvoluted spectra and peak metadata (retention index, unique ion, spectral similarity, peak signal-to-noise ratio, and peak purity) from the Leco ChromaTOF software, and annotates peaks using a multi-tiered filtering system with stringent thresholds. The vocBinBase algorithm assigns the identity of compounds existing in the database. Volatile compound assignments are supported by the Adams mass spectral-retention index library, which contains over 2,000 plant-derived volatile compounds. Novel molecules that are not found within vocBinBase are automatically added using strict mass spectral and experimental criteria. Users obtain fully annotated data sheets with quantitative information for all volatile compounds for studies that may consist of thousands of chromatograms. The vocBinBase database may also be queried across different studies, comprising currently 1,537 unique mass spectra generated from 1.7 million deconvoluted mass spectra of 3,435 samples (18 species). Mass spectra with retention indices and volatile profiles are available as free download under the CC-BY agreement (http://vocbinbase.fiehnlab.ucdavis.edu). The BinBase database algorithms have been successfully modified to allow for tracking and identification of volatile compounds in complex mixtures. The database is capable of annotating large datasets (hundreds to thousands of samples) and is well-suited for between-study comparisons such as chemotaxonomy investigations. This novel volatile compound database tool is applicable to research fields spanning chemical ecology to human health. The BinBase source code is freely available at http://binbase.sourceforge.net/ under the LGPL 2.0 license agreement.BMC Bioinformatics 08/2011; 12:321. · 2.75 Impact Factor