Psychiatric comorbidity in gender identity disorder

Department of Psychiatry, University Hospital, Culmannstrasse 8, Zurich CH-8091, Switzerland.
Journal of Psychosomatic Research (Impact Factor: 2.74). 04/2005; 58(3):259-61. DOI: 10.1016/j.jpsychores.2004.08.010
Source: PubMed


Despite being recognized as an important prognostic factor for the outcome in gender identity disorder (GID), psychiatric comorbidity has rarely been assessed by means of standardized diagnostic instruments. The aim of this study was to assess current and lifetime psychiatric comorbidity in patients with GID.
A cross-sectional sample of 31 patients who were treated for GID was assessed by the structured clinical interview for Axis I and II (SCID-I/II) and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS).
Twenty-nine percent of the patients had no current or lifetime Axis I disorder; 39% fulfilled the criteria for current and 71% for current and/or lifetime Axis I diagnosis. Forty-two percent of the patients were diagnosed with one or more personality disorders.
Lifetime psychiatric comorbidity in GID patients is high, and this should be taken into account in the assessment and treatment planning of GID patients.

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    • "ransseksüel bireylerde sıklıkla ek psikiyatrik tanılar bulunur ve bu durum kişilerin psikososyal uyumunu dolayısıyla bozukluğun gidişini etkilemektedir. Yapılan küçük ölçekli bir çalışmada transseksüel bireylerin yaşam boyu eksen I tanısı alma sıklığı %71 olarak bulunmuş, aynı çalışmada olguların %42'si en az bir kişilik bozukluğu tanısı almıştır (Hepp ve ark. 2005). Anksiyete bozuklukları, madde kullanım bozuklukları ve depresyon sık eşlik eden bozukluklardır ve transseksüel bireylerde borderline kişilik özelliklerinin, narsisistik ve paranoid öğelerin görüldüğü bildirilmiştir. Psikiyatrik ek tanısı olmayan 500 cinsel kimlik bozukluğu tanılı bireyde yapılan bir çalışmada olguların %72'sinde yaşam"
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    12/2015; 7(4):436-447. DOI:10.5455/cap.20150208051330
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    • "For example, LGB populations may be at increased risk for suicide (Hershberger and D'Augelli, 1995; Mustanski and Liu, 2013), traumatic stress reactions (D'Augelli et al., 2002), major depression disorders (Cochran and Mays, 2000), generalized anxiety disorders (Bostwick et al., 2010), or substance abuse (King et al., 2008). In addition, transgender people have been identified as being at a greater risk for developing: anxiety disorders (Hepp et al., 2005; Mustanski et al., 2010); depression (Nuttbrock et al., 2010; Nemoto et al., 2011); social phobia and adjustment disorders (Gómez-Gil et al., 2009); substance abuse (Lawrence, 2008); or eating disorders (Vocks et al., 2009). At the same time, data on suicide ideation and attempts among this population are alarming: Maguen and Shipherd (2010) found the percentage of attempted suicides to be as high as 40% in transsexual men and 20% in transsexual women. "
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    Frontiers in Psychology 10/2015; 6. DOI:10.3389/fpsyg.2015.01511 · 2.80 Impact Factor
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    • "GD is sometimes accompanied by psychiatric problems that may be consequences of persistent psychological difficulties due to social rejection and the incongruence between biological sex and gender identity (Simon et al., 2011). Several studies have reported that subjects with GD have shown a high prevalence of affective problems or social anxiety disorder compared to a general population (A Campo et al., 2003; Hepp et al., 2005; de Vries et al., 2011; Heylens et al., 2013). However, other studies showed a low level of psychopathology (Gomez-Gil et al., 2009; Hoshiai et al., 2010; Fisher et al., 2013). "
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