Cost of a ventilator-associated pneumonia in a shock trauma intensive care unit.
ABSTRACT Nosocomial pneumonia and especially ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) are costly complications for the hospitalized patient. Nosocomial pneumonia has been estimated to cost $5,000 per episode, but the specific cost for a VAP has not been well estimated. As part of a successful performance improvement program in decreasing VAP from 10 VAPs/100 ICU admissions to 2.5 VAPs/100 ICU admissions, we examined the costs associated with VAP.
From January 1, 2002, through September 30, 2003, Shock Trauma Intensive Care Unit patients and charts were reviewed concurrently by an infection control practitioner for development of VAP as defined by National Nosocomial Infection Surveillance (NNIS) guidelines. Costs were obtained from the hospital's cost accounting software Transition Systems version 3.1.01 (TSI). All patients requiring greater than one day of mechanical ventilation were evaluated. Seventy patients with VAP and 70 patients without VAP were matched according to age and Injury Severity Score. Differences were compared using Kruskal-Wallis and two sample T-tests. Significance was considered for p < 0.05.
The ICU cost difference was significant (p < 0.05) between the case-controlled patients with VAP ($82,195) and those without VAP ($25,037). There was also a significant increase in ICU length of stay (21.6 versus 6.4 days) and the number of ventilator days (17.7 versus 5.8; both, p < 0.05). Mortality was not different in the case-controlled population. A substantial portion of the increased cost of a VAP was from the increase in ICU length of stay ($1,861/day). Pharmacy, respiratory and "other" also accounted for the increases when cost distribution was analyzed. This translates into a cost avoidance of approximately $428,685 per 100 admissions to the ICU.
Ventilator-associated pneumonia not only leads to a significant increase in ventilator days and ICU length of stay, but adds substantially to hospital costs. In our ICU, an episode of VAP costs $57,000 per occurrence.
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ABSTRACT: Abstract Background: Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is a well-known complication of mechanical ventilation in severely injured patients. A subset of patients with VAP develop an associated bacteremia (B-VAP), but the risk factors, microbiology, morbidity, and mortality in this group are not well described. The goal of this study was to examine the incidence, predictors, and outcome of B-VAP in adult trauma patients. Methods: We conducted a retrospective review of trauma patients who developed VAP or B-VAP from January 2007 to December 2009 at a single, university-affiliated medical center. Ventilator-associated pneumonia was defined as a clinician-documented instance of VAP together with confirmed positive respiratory cultures (bronchoalveolar lavage [BAL] fluid specimen with ≥10(4) colony forming units (CFU)/mL or tracheal aspirate with moderate-to-many organisms and polymorphonuclear neutrophils [PMN]). Bacteremia associated with VAP (B-VAP) was defined as the blood culture of an organism that matched the pulmonary pathogen in a case of VAP. We reviewed the demographic data, injury severity, transfusion data, and microbiology of patients who developed VAP and B-VAP. Outcome data included the number of days of care in the intensive care unit (ICU) and hospital length of stay, number of days of mechanical ventilation, and survival. A Student t-test, χ(2) test, or logistic regression was used as appropriate for data analysis. Results: During the 36-mo period of the study, 4,018 adult patients were admitted to the hospital. Ventilator-associated pneumonia was diagnosed in 206 (5%) of these patients, and 26 of these latter patients (13%) had an associated bacteremia. The mean time from admission to the development of VAP was 5 d (95% CI 4.6-5.8). Patients who had B-VAP received significantly more units of red blood cell concentrates (PRBC) than those who did not have B-VAP (23 units vs. 9 units of PRBC, respectively, p<0.05). Patients with B-VAP also had higher rates of simultaneous non-pulmonary infections than those with VAP alone (69% vs. 38%, respectively), a greater number of days of mechanical ventilator support (24 d vs. 14 d, respectively, p<0.05), a greater number of days in the ICU (26 d vs. 17 d, respectively, p<0.05), and a greater hospital length of stay (50 d vs. 30 d, respectively, p<0.05). Patients with B-VAP showed a trend toward lower survival than those without B-VAP, but B-VAP was not an independent predictor of mortality. Conclusions: Trauma patients with B-VAP have a similar mortality but greater morbidity than those with VAP alone. The number of PRBC received is the most significant risk factor for developing B-VAP. More than two-thirds of patients with B-VAP have contemporaneous extra-pulmonic infections. Trauma patients with B-VAP may benefit from increased surveillance for additional concomitant infections and from more aggressive empiric antimicrobial coverage.Surgical Infections 11/2013; DOI:10.1089/sur.2012.030 · 1.72 Impact Factor
Current problems in surgery 10/2013; 50(10):433-7. DOI:10.1067/j.cpsurg.2013.08.006 · 1.42 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Si la pneumonie acquise sous ventilation mécanique (PAVM) augmente la morbidité, son rôle exact dans la mortalité reste débattu. La mortalité rapportée dans les études varie de 15 à 70 %. Cette variabilité peut s’expliquer de plusieurs façons : 1) le diagnostic de PAVM ne bénéficie pas de gold standard en dehors de l’histologie, ce qui explique la disparité des critères diagnostiques utilisés ; 2) de nombreux événements en modifient le pronostic, au premier rang desquels le caractère adapté de l’antibiothérapie empirique ; 3) de nombreuses pathologies impriment leur propre gravité sur celle de la PAVM, le mécanisme de mortalité en réanimation étant de ce fait difficile à déterminer avec précision ; 4) les approches statistiques permettant de lier PAVM et mortalité sont nombreuses, sans qu’aucune ne soit reconnue comme référence. En conclusion, différencier la mortalité attribuable à la PAVM de la mortalité associée, dues aux comorbidités, reste une problématique incomplètement résolue.Réanimation 05/2013; 22(3). DOI:10.1007/s13546-013-0672-4