Nosocomial pneumonia and especially ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) are costly complications for the hospitalized patient. Nosocomial pneumonia has been estimated to cost $5,000 per episode, but the specific cost for a VAP has not been well estimated. As part of a successful performance improvement program in decreasing VAP from 10 VAPs/100 ICU admissions to 2.5 VAPs/100 ICU admissions, we examined the costs associated with VAP.
From January 1, 2002, through September 30, 2003, Shock Trauma Intensive Care Unit patients and charts were reviewed concurrently by an infection control practitioner for development of VAP as defined by National Nosocomial Infection Surveillance (NNIS) guidelines. Costs were obtained from the hospital's cost accounting software Transition Systems version 3.1.01 (TSI). All patients requiring greater than one day of mechanical ventilation were evaluated. Seventy patients with VAP and 70 patients without VAP were matched according to age and Injury Severity Score. Differences were compared using Kruskal-Wallis and two sample T-tests. Significance was considered for p < 0.05.
The ICU cost difference was significant (p < 0.05) between the case-controlled patients with VAP ($82,195) and those without VAP ($25,037). There was also a significant increase in ICU length of stay (21.6 versus 6.4 days) and the number of ventilator days (17.7 versus 5.8; both, p < 0.05). Mortality was not different in the case-controlled population. A substantial portion of the increased cost of a VAP was from the increase in ICU length of stay ($1,861/day). Pharmacy, respiratory and "other" also accounted for the increases when cost distribution was analyzed. This translates into a cost avoidance of approximately $428,685 per 100 admissions to the ICU.
Ventilator-associated pneumonia not only leads to a significant increase in ventilator days and ICU length of stay, but adds substantially to hospital costs. In our ICU, an episode of VAP costs $57,000 per occurrence.
"Since different billing systems create different incentives to health care providers the billing system should be considered in medico-economic analyses. Even though the numbers on costs of LRTIs vary very much increased hospital costs have been reported for patients with LRTIs unanimously in different DRG-based studies [5-8]. A matched cohort study by Kollef et al. estimated the monetary difference of means of cases with and controls without ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) to be 39,828 USD . "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background
Lower respiratory tract infections (LRTI) are the most common hospital-acquired infections on ICUs. They have not only an impact on each patient’s individual health but also result in a considerable financial burden for the healthcare system. Our aim was to determine the costs and the length of stay of patients with ICU-acquired LRTI.
We used a retrospectively matched cohort design, comparing patients with ICU-acquired LRTI and ICU patients without LRTI. LRTI was diagnosed using the definitions of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Study period was from January to December 2010 analyzing patients from 10 different ICUs (medical, surgical, interdisciplinary). The device utilization ratio was defined as number of ventilator days divided by number of patient days and the device-associated LRTI rate was defined as number of ventilator associated LRTI divided by number of ventilator days. Patients were matched by age, sex, and prospectively obtained Simplified Acute Physiology Score II (SAPS II). The length of ICU stay of control patients needed to be at least as long as that of LRTI-patients before onset of LRTI. We used the Wilcoxon signed-rank test for continuous variables and the McNemar’s test for categorical variables.
The analyzed ICUs had 40,772 patient days in the study period with a median ventilation utilization ratio of 56 (IQR 42–65). The median device-associated LRTI rate was 3.35 (IQR 0.96-5.36) per 1,000 ventilation days. We analyzed 49 patients with ICU-acquired LRTI and 49 respective controls without LRTI. The median hospital costs for LRTI patients were significantly higher than for patients without LRTI (45,041 € vs. 26,467 €; p < .001). The attributable costs per LRTI patient were 17,015 € (p < .001). Patients with ICU acquired LRTI stayed longer in the hospital than patients without (36 days vs. 24 days; p = 0.011). An LRTI lead to an attributable increase in length of stay by 9 days (p = 0.011).
ICU-acquired LRTI is associated with increased hospital costs and prolonged hospital stay. Hospital management should therefore implement control measurements to keep the incidence of ICU-acquired LRTI as low as possible.
"Numerous studies have provided evidence that VAP can lead to significant increases in several important medical utilization items. When compared to patients without VAP, those who developed VAP spent an extra 6 to 22 days in ICU [3-5,8,12,15-19], were hospitalized for an extra 10 to 25 days [5,12,17], underwent an extra 5 to 12 days of ventilation [5,18,19], and cost an extra USD10,019 to USD41,000 in hospitalization expenses [4,5,12,17]. One Canadian study showed that an extra 17,000 ICU days per year could be attributed to VAP, which accounted for 2% of total ICU days and USD39.3 million in increased medical expenditure . "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The economic burden of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) during the index hospitalization has been confirmed in previous studies. However, the long-term economic impact is still unclear. The aim of this study is to examine the effect of VAP on medical utilization in the long term.
This is a retrospective case-control study. Study subjects were patients experiencing their first traumatic brain injury, acute hemorrhagic stroke, or acute ischemic stroke during 2004. All subjects underwent endotracheal intubation in the emergency room (ER) on the day of admission or the day before admission, were transferred to the intensive care unit (ICU) and were mechanically ventilated for 48 hours or more. A total of 943 patients who developed VAP were included as the case group, and each was matched with two control patients without VAP by age ( ± 2 years), gender, diagnosis, date of admission ( ± 1 month) and hospital size, resulting in a total of 2,802 patients in the study. Using robust regression and Poisson regression models we examined the effect of VAP on medical utilization including hospitalization expenses, outpatient expenses, total medical expenses, number of ER visits, number of readmissions, number of hospitalization days and number of ICU days, during the index hospitalization and during the following 2-year period.
Patients in the VAP group had higher hospitalization expenses, longer length of stay in hospital and in ICU, and a greater number of readmissions than the control group patients.
VAP has a significant impact on medical expenses and utilization, both during the index hospitalization during which VAP developed and in the longer term.
BMC Health Services Research 10/2011; 11(1):289. DOI:10.1186/1472-6963-11-289 · 1.71 Impact Factor
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