Article

Lipid response to a low-fat diet with or without soy is modified by C-reactive protein status in moderately hypercholesterolemic adults.

Department of Nutritional Sciences, The Huck Institutes of the Life Sciences, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA, USA.
Journal of Nutrition (Impact Factor: 4.23). 05/2005; 135(5):1075-9.
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Recent evidence suggests that individuals with high concentrations of C-reactive protein (CRP), a marker of inflammation, are less responsive to cholesterol-lowering diets. CRP concentrations are increased by oral estrogen; however, the effect of soy phytoestrogens on inflammation has not been studied comprehensively, especially in women receiving hormone replacement therapy (HRT). This study was conducted to determine whether adding soy to a low-fat, high-fiber diet affects CRP and interleukin (IL)-6, and to examine the association between CRP levels and lipid response in moderately hypercholesterolemic adults (men = 18, postmenopausal women = 14; 6 receiving HRT). After a 3-wk run-in period with consumption of a Step I diet (27% total fat, 7% saturated fat, 275 mg cholesterol), participants were randomly assigned to diets containing 25 g/d soy protein (+ 90 mg/d isoflavones) or 25 g/d milk protein for 6 wk in a crossover design. Lipids and lipoproteins, CRP, and IL-6 were measured at the end of each diet and participants were categorized into high (>3.5 mg/L) or low CRP groups based on a median split. The addition of soy or milk protein to the Step I diet did not affect lipids or inflammatory markers. Regardless of protein source, those with low CRP exhibited significant decreases in LDL cholesterol (-3.5%) and the LDL:HDL cholesterol ratio (-4.8%), whereas those with high CRP had significant increases in LDL cholesterol (+4.8%), the LDL:HDL cholesterol ratio (+5.2%), apolipoprotein B (+3.8%), and lipoprotein(a) (+13.5%) compared with the run-in diet. These results suggest that inflammation may not only attenuate lipid responses, but also aggravate dyslipidemia in hypercholesterolemic subjects consuming a cholesterol-lowering diet.

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