Human Nutrition and Metabolism

Department of Nutritional Sciences, The Huck Institutes of the Life Sciences, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA, USA.
Journal of Nutrition (Impact Factor: 3.88). 05/2005; 135(5):1075-9.
Source: PubMed


Recent evidence suggests that individuals with high concentrations of C-reactive protein (CRP), a marker of inflammation, are less responsive to cholesterol-lowering diets. CRP concentrations are increased by oral estrogen; however, the effect of soy phytoestrogens on inflammation has not been studied comprehensively, especially in women receiving hormone replacement therapy (HRT). This study was conducted to determine whether adding soy to a low-fat, high-fiber diet affects CRP and interleukin (IL)-6, and to examine the association between CRP levels and lipid response in moderately hypercholesterolemic adults (men = 18, postmenopausal women = 14; 6 receiving HRT). After a 3-wk run-in period with consumption of a Step I diet (27% total fat, 7% saturated fat, 275 mg cholesterol), participants were randomly assigned to diets containing 25 g/d soy protein (+ 90 mg/d isoflavones) or 25 g/d milk protein for 6 wk in a crossover design. Lipids and lipoproteins, CRP, and IL-6 were measured at the end of each diet and participants were categorized into high (>3.5 mg/L) or low CRP groups based on a median split. The addition of soy or milk protein to the Step I diet did not affect lipids or inflammatory markers. Regardless of protein source, those with low CRP exhibited significant decreases in LDL cholesterol (-3.5%) and the LDL:HDL cholesterol ratio (-4.8%), whereas those with high CRP had significant increases in LDL cholesterol (+4.8%), the LDL:HDL cholesterol ratio (+5.2%), apolipoprotein B (+3.8%), and lipoprotein(a) (+13.5%) compared with the run-in diet. These results suggest that inflammation may not only attenuate lipid responses, but also aggravate dyslipidemia in hypercholesterolemic subjects consuming a cholesterol-lowering diet.

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Available from: Sheila West, Jan 07, 2015
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    • "Obesity, influenced by environmental and genetic factors, is one of the important factors in the etiology of metabolic syndrome, cardiovascular disease (CVD), and cancer [1] [2] [3]. Obesity is related to increased level of inflammatory markers such as CRP (C-reactive protein) that are associated with metabolic syndrome [4]. According to evidence of 2005, 937 and 396 million people around the world were obese and overweight, respectively [5]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background. Adiponectin, an adipokine secreted from adipose tissue, has antiobesity, anti-insulin resistance, and anticancer roles. The present study aimed to review the epidemiologic evidence about the association between adiponectin and cancers. Method. We searched in PubMed from 2002 to October 2011 by using the following key words: cancer, malignancy, cell proliferation, and adiponectin. Finally, 45 articles were recruited to review in the present paper. Findings. Several findings suggested inverse association between concentration of hormone and breast cancer risk. Low levels of adiponectin increase the risk of endometrial cancer in women. Adiponectin levels were significantly associated with prostate cancer in men. It seems that there is an inverse relationship between levels of adiponectin or its gene and colorectal cancer. Significant association between hormone and pancreatic cancer was found. Conclusion. Several findings suggested the negative correlation between adiponectin and risk of cancers. This relationship was more elucidated by the correlation between the hormone with obesity and insulin resistance. Suppression of growth and proliferation of cancer cells by adiponectin were explained via several mechanisms.
    11/2012; 2012(1):982769. DOI:10.5402/2012/982769
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    • "administering soy protein isolate or isolated isoflavones concur with the absence of effect on CRP shown in the present study (Teede et al., 2004; D'Anna et al., 2005; Hilpert et al., 2005; Yildiz et al., 2005; Hanson et al., 2006; Ryan- Borchers et al., 2006). Regardless of intervention length (1 month to 3 years), vehicle of administration (soy protein isolate or isoflavone tablets) or isoflavone dose (10–129 mg), significant effects on CRP were not observed in these studies. "
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    ABSTRACT: To investigate the effect of soy protein containing isoflavones on homocysteine (Hcy), C-reactive protein (CRP), soluble E-selectin (sE-selectin), soluble vascular adhesion molecule-1 (sVCAM-1) and soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1). In a randomized crossover design, 34 postmenopausal women consumed soy protein isolate (26+/-5 g protein containing 44+/-8 mg isoflavones per day) or milk protein isolate (26+/-5 g protein per day) for 6 weeks each. Fasting blood samples were collected at the end of each diet period and end points analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Concentrations of Hcy, CRP, sE-selectin, sVCAM-1 and sICAM-1 were not different between soy and milk diet treatments. Results did not differ by equol production status or by baseline lipid concentration. Adjustment for intake of folate and methionine did not alter the Hcy results. These data suggest that decreasing vascular inflammation and Hcy concentration are not likely mechanisms by which soy consumption reduces coronary heart disease risk.
    European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 10/2007; 62(12):1419-25. DOI:10.1038/sj.ejcn.1602885 · 2.71 Impact Factor
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    • "Epidemiological studies have demonstrated a reduced mortality rate due to coronary heart disease in populations consuming soy [17] and other evidence also suggests the isoflavones (IF) from soybeans may have anti-inflammatory activity in cardiovascular disease [18]. A number of studies have reported decreases in cytokines and inflammation with either soy foods or IF [19-21]; however, other research has not observed beneficial effects of soy isoflavones on markers of inflammation [22,23]. Genistein, the most abundant IF in soy, is a tyrosine kinase inhibitor [24] and thus may affect signaling pathways of immune cells and the subsequent innate and adaptive immune responses. "
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    ABSTRACT: Evidence from epidemiological, clinical and animal studies suggests a link may exist between low bone density and cardiovascular disease, with inflammatory mediators implicated in the pathophysiology of both conditions. This project examined whether supplementation with soy isoflavones (IF), shown to have anti-inflammatory properties, could prevent tissue expression of TNF-alpha and the development of skeletal pathology in an animal model of chronic inflammation. Eight-week old, intact, female C57BL/6J mice were used. In Phase 1, a lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-dose response study (0, 0.133, 1.33 and 13.3 mug/d) was conducted to determine the LPS dose to use in Phase 2. The results indicated the 1.33 mug LPS/d dose produced the greatest decrease in lymphocytes and increase in neutrophils. Subsequently, in Phase 2, mice were randomly assigned to one of six groups (n = 12-13 per group): 0 or 1.33 mug LPS/d (placebo or LPS) in combination with 0, 126 or 504 mg aglycone equivalents of soy IF/kg diet (Control, Low or High dose IF). Mice were fed IF beginning 2 wks prior to the 30-d LPS study period. At the end of the study, no differences were detected in final body weights or uterine weights. In terms of trabecular bone microarchitecture, muCT analyses of the distal femur metaphysis indicated that LPS significantly decreased trabecular bone volume (BV/TV) and number (TbN), and increased separation (TbSp). Trabecular bone strength (i.e. total force) and stiffness were also compromised in response to LPS. The High IF dose provided protection against these detrimental effects on microarchitecture, but not biomechanical properties. No alterations in trabecular thickness (TbTh), or cortical bone parameters were observed in response to the LPS or IF. Immunohistomchemical staining showed that tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha was up-regulated by LPS in the endothelium of small myocardial arteries and arterioles as well as the tibial metaphysis and down-regulated by IF. These results suggest IF may attenuate the negative effects of chronic inflammation on bone and cardiovascular health. Additional research is warranted to examine the anti-inflammatory properties of the soy isoflavones and the mechanisms underlying their prevention of chronic inflammation-induced bone loss.
    Journal of Inflammation 02/2007; 4(1):17. DOI:10.1186/1476-9255-4-17 · 2.02 Impact Factor
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