Lower serum sodium is associated with increased short-term mortality in hospitalized patients with worsening heart failure - Results from the Outcomes of a Prospective Trial of Intravenous Milrinone for Exacerbations of Chronic Heart Failure (OPTIME-CHF) study

University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, North Carolina, United States
Circulation (Impact Factor: 14.43). 05/2005; 111(19):2454-60. DOI: 10.1161/01.CIR.0000165065.82609.3D
Source: PubMed


The prognostic value of serum sodium in patients hospitalized for worsening heart failure has not been well defined.
The Outcomes of a Prospective Trial of Intravenous Milrinone for Exacerbations of Chronic Heart Failure (OPTIME-CHF) study randomized 949 patients with systolic dysfunction hospitalized for worsening heart failure to receive 48 to 72 hours of intravenous milrinone or placebo in addition to standard therapy. In a retrospective analysis, we investigated the relationship between admission serum sodium and the primary end point of days hospitalized for cardiovascular causes within 60 days of randomization, as well as the secondary end points of in-hospital mortality, 60-day mortality, and 60-day mortality/rehospitalization. The number of days hospitalized for cardiovascular causes was higher in the lowest sodium quartile: 8.0 (4.5, 18.5) versus 6 (4, 13) versus 6 (4, 11.5) versus 6 (4, 12) days (P<0.015 for comparison with the lowest quartile). Lower serum sodium was associated with higher in-hospital and 60-day mortality: 5.9% versus 1% versus 2.3% versus 2.3% (P<0.015) and 15.9% versus 6.4% versus 7.8% versus 7% (P=0.002), respectively. There was a trend toward higher mortality/rehospitalization for patients who were in the lowest sodium quartile. Multivariable-adjusted Cox proportional hazards analysis showed that serum sodium on admission, when modeled linearly, predicted increased 60-day mortality: sodium (per 3-mEq/L decrease) had a hazard ratio of 1.18 with a 95% CI of 1.03 to 1.36 (P=0.018).
In patients hospitalized for worsening heart failure, admission serum sodium is an independent predictor of increased number of days hospitalized for cardiovascular causes and increased mortality within 60 days of discharge.

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Available from: Gary Michael Felker, Dec 12, 2013
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    • "As expected and similar with previous studies, the incidence of adverse effects associated with the pharmacological effects of the drug like dry mouth and thirst was seen frequently in patients after receiving tolvaptan.[4567891011121321] This was unusual in our study that some patients had hypernatremia and worsening of renal function after starting tolvaptan treatment. "
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    Heart Views 03/2014; 15(1):1-5. DOI:10.4103/1995-705X.132136
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    • "Hyponatremia has been generally associated with an increased mortality in different conditions such as pneumonia [12], heart failure [13], acute myocardial infarction [14], cirrhosis [15], cancer [14], in the elderly [16], and in intensive care patients [17]. However, whether hyponatremia is an independent risk factor for death or is simply associated with an underlying severe condition that is the cause of death remains to be elucidated [4], [18]. "
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    • "Depending on the clinical situation, both scenarios can be true. For example, severe hyponatremia in edematous states such as cirrhosis and congestive heart failure can be viewed as a surrogate marker of disease progression.20,21 In these situations, worsening hyponatremia typically reflects progression to end-stage liver disease or decompensated heart failure – conditions with high mortality regardless of serum sodium. "
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