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Chemical characterization and antifungal activity of essential oil of capitula from wild Indian Tagetes patula L

Dipartimento del Museo di Paleobiologia e dell'Orto Botanico, Università di Modena e Reggio Emilia, Modena, Italy.
Protoplasma (Impact Factor: 3.17). 05/2005; 225(1-2):57-65. DOI: 10.1007/s00709-005-0084-8
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The essential oil extracted by steam distillation from the capitula of Indian Tagetes patula, Asteraceae, was evaluated for its antifungal properties and analyzed by gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Thirty compounds were identified, representing 89.1% of the total detected. The main components were piperitone (24.74%), piperitenone (22.93%), terpinolene (7.8%), dihydro tagetone (4.91%), cis-tagetone (4.62%), limonene (4.52%), and allo-ocimene (3.66%). The oil exerted a good antifungal activity against two phytopathogenic fungi, Botrytis cinerea and Penicillium digitatum, providing complete growth inhibition at 10 microl/ml and 1.25 microl/ml, respectively. The contribution of the two main compounds, piperitone and piperitenone, to the antifungal efficacy was also evaluated and ultrastructural modifications in mycelia were observed via electron microscopy, evidencing large alterations in hyphal morphology and a multisite mechanism of action.

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    • "The loss of linear form and branching of terminal hyphae could be induced by the loss of directionality of the vesicles that cause them to discharge parietal materials at positions where exocytosis does not usually take place. Such modifications induced by essential oil may be related to the interference of their components with enzymatic reactions of wall synthesis, which affects fungal morphogenesis and growth (Rahman & Gul, 2005; Romagnoli et al., 2005). The oils also induced lysis of the mycelia. "
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    ABSTRACT: Volatile oils of two varieties of asafoetida (Ferula asafoetida), namely Pathani and Irani, isolated by hydrodistillation were studied for their antimicrobial properties against various foodborne bacterial and fungal organisms. Pathani was more effective against bacteria such as Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis with 18 mm and 28 mm zone of inhibition, respectively. Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) for both E. coli and B. subtilis was about 5 ppm. Volatile oil of Irani showed 75 and 70% inhibition of growth of Penicillium chrysogenum and Aspergillus ochraceus respectively whereas volatile oil of Pathani exhibited 49 and 45% inhibition. The major compounds identified in Pathani volatile oil are (E)-1- propenyl sec-butyl disulphide (56%), 1-(1- propenylthio) propyl methyl disulfide (16.9%) and 1,2- dithiolane (5.7%) using GC–MS analysis. Irani volatile oil showed the presence of (Z)-1- propenyl sec-butyl disulfide (14.4%), (E)-1- propenyl sec-butyl disulfide (28.8%) and 1-(1- propenythio) propyl methyl disulfide (10.1%) as the major compounds. The presence of various volatile compounds among the varieties of asafoetida is demonstrated well in this study. Thus, it can be concluded that Pathani oil was found to be a good antibacterial agent while Irani oil a fungicidal agent.
    Lebensmittel-Wissenschaft und-Technologie 12/2014; 59(2):774–779. DOI:10.1016/j.lwt.2014.07.013 · 2.47 Impact Factor
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    • "can be attributed to morphological changes in the cell wall and interference in enzymatic reactions of wall synthesis, which affect fungal growth and morphogenesis [34]. This causes either an increase in ion permeability and leakage of vital intracellular constituents, or impairment of the fungal enzyme systems [35, 36]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Corymbia citriodora and Cymbopogon nardus essential oils samples were analyzed by GC and GC-MS and their qualitative and quantitative compositions established. The main component of essential oils of C. citriodora and C. nardus was citronellal, at 61.78% and 36.6%, respectively. The essential oils and citronellal were tested for their fumigant antifungal activity against Pyricularia (Magnaporthe) grisea, Aspergillus spp., and Colletotrichum musae. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) ranged from 100 to 200 ppm for the essential oils and 25 to 50 mg·mL(-1) for citronellal. The contact assay using the essential oils and citronellal showed growth inhibition of the three fungal species. However, a concentration of 1.47 mg·mL(-1) only reduced the inhibition of Aspergillus growth to 90% at 14 days of exposure. For the fumigant assay, 0.05, 0.11, and 0.23 mg·mL(-1) of essential oils and citronellal drastically affected growth of P. grisea, Aspergillus spp., and C. musae. Harmful effects on the sporulation and germination of the three fungi were seen, and there was complete inhibition at 0.15 mg·mL(-1) with both oils and citronellal. This showed that the crude component of essential oils of C. citriodora and C. nardus markedly suppressed spore production, germination, and growth inhibition of P. grisea, Aspergillus spp., and Colletotrichum musae.
    The Scientific World Journal 01/2014; 2014(3):492138. DOI:10.1155/2014/492138 · 1.73 Impact Factor
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    • "This result was confirmed by SEM analysis, which showed that similar morphological alterations were induced in O. eucalypti structures independent of the concentration of preparation applied. Other researchers have reported that such morphological alterations are concentration dependent, that is, the higher the concentration, the more intense the alterations observed (Romagnoli et al. 2005; Tolouee et al. 2010). It would appear that oils and decoctions concentrations lower than the minimum levels assayed in the present study might also be effective. "
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    ABSTRACT: Eucalyptus plants cultivated in greenhouses, nurseries and clonal minigardens are vulnerable to attack of Oidium eucalypti (powdery mildew). Essential oils and decoctions prepared from the traditional Brazilian medicinal plants Aloysia gratissima, Cordia verbenacea and Hyptis marrubioides have been shown to be effective in the control of some plant diseases. In this study, the local and systemic effects of these preparations in the control of O. eucalypti were evaluated by assessing the progress of the disease in saplings of a highly susceptible hybrid population of eucalyptus (‘urocam’). The systemic effects were also assessed by investigating the ability of the preparations to induce disease resistance, as indicated by increased peroxidase activity. The natural products were found to be as effective as a commercial fungicide (mixture of pyraclostrobin and epoxiconazole) for the control of O. eucalypti in eucalyptus plants under greenhouse conditions. Additionally, the essential oil and decoction of A. gratissima were able to exert systemic control over O. eucalypti and induce peroxidase activity in Oidium-inoculated plants. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that the oils and decoctions from the three species exhibited direct fungitoxic activities on O. eucalypti as shown by lysis of hyphal walls and shrinking of conidia. The results presented herein suggest that oils and decoctions from A. gratissima, C. verbenacea and H. marrubioides may offer an effective, practical and ecofriendly strategy for the control of O. eucalypti in eucalyptus.
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