Chemical characterization and antifungal activity of essential oil of capitula from wild India Tagetes patula L

Dipartimento del Museo di Paleobiologia e dell'Orto Botanico, Università di Modena e Reggio Emilia, Modena, Italy.
Protoplasma (Impact Factor: 2.65). 05/2005; 225(1-2):57-65. DOI: 10.1007/s00709-005-0084-8
Source: PubMed


The essential oil extracted by steam distillation from the capitula of Indian Tagetes patula, Asteraceae, was evaluated for its antifungal properties and analyzed by gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Thirty compounds were identified, representing 89.1% of the total detected. The main components were piperitone (24.74%), piperitenone (22.93%), terpinolene (7.8%), dihydro tagetone (4.91%), cis-tagetone (4.62%), limonene (4.52%), and allo-ocimene (3.66%). The oil exerted a good antifungal activity against two phytopathogenic fungi, Botrytis cinerea and Penicillium digitatum, providing complete growth inhibition at 10 microl/ml and 1.25 microl/ml, respectively. The contribution of the two main compounds, piperitone and piperitenone, to the antifungal efficacy was also evaluated and ultrastructural modifications in mycelia were observed via electron microscopy, evidencing large alterations in hyphal morphology and a multisite mechanism of action.

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    • "Hence, plasma membrane is the important target of EO. This study agrees earlier investigations of Romagnoli et al. (2005) who found antifungal mode of action of Tagetes patula EO on plasma membrane of Botrytis cinerea as observed through SEM and TEM studies. Tian et al. (2012) and Kedia et al. (2015) also found plasma membrane as the important antifungal target of Cinnamomum jensenianum and Trachyspermum ammi EOs, respectively, against A. flavus. "
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    ABSTRACT: The present study reports in vivo antifungal and antiaflatoxigenic efficacy of Mentha spicata essential oil (EO) against toxigenic Aspergillus flavus strain LHP(C)-D6 in chickpea food system up to 12 months of storage. In addition, the mode of antifungal action of EO was also determined to understand the mechanism of fungal growth inhibition. The in vivo study with different concentrations of M. spicata EO showed dose-dependent decrease in fungal colony count as well as aflatoxin B1 concentration. The EO caused >50 % protection in inoculated sets and >70 % protection in uninoculated sets of chickpea food system against A. flavus at 1.0 μL mL(-1) air concentration. However, at the same concentration, EO caused 100 % inhibition to aflatoxin B1 production in both sets when analyzed through high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The antifungal target of EO in fumigated cells of A. flavus was found to be the plasma membrane when analyzed through electron microscopic observations and ions leakage test. The EO fumigated chickpea seeds showed 100 % seed germination and seedling growth after 12 months of storage. Based on these observations, M. spicata EO can be recommended as plant-based preservative for safe protection of food commodities during storage conditions against fungal and most importantly mycotoxin contaminations.
    Protoplasma 09/2015; DOI:10.1007/s00709-015-0871-9 · 2.65 Impact Factor
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    • "The suppression of fungal growth after treatment with many essential oils is associated with the degeneration of fungal hyphae and alterations in the endomembrane system (Romagnoli et al. 2005; Soylu et al. 2006). TTO can induce membrane or ultrastructure damage that can be visualized by electron microscopy in both bacterial and fungal cells (Carson et al. 2002; Shao et al. 2013b). "
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    Journal of Applied Microbiology 08/2015; DOI:10.1111/jam.12939 · 2.48 Impact Factor
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    • "The loss of linear form and branching of terminal hyphae could be induced by the loss of directionality of the vesicles that cause them to discharge parietal materials at positions where exocytosis does not usually take place. Such modifications induced by essential oil may be related to the interference of their components with enzymatic reactions of wall synthesis, which affects fungal morphogenesis and growth (Rahman & Gul, 2005; Romagnoli et al., 2005). The oils also induced lysis of the mycelia. "
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