Energetics of obesity and weight control: Does diet composition matter?

Department of Nutritional Sciences, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 53706, USA.
Journal of the American Dietetic Association (Impact Factor: 3.92). 05/2005; 105(5 Suppl 1):S24-8. DOI: 10.1016/j.jada.2005.02.025
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Greater average weight losses (2.5 kg over 12 weeks) have been reported for low-carbohydrate diets (<90 g/day) compared with traditional low-fat (<25% of energy), hypocaloric diets, implying a 233 kcal/day greater energy deficit. It has therefore been suggested that a low-carbohydrate diet may provide a metabolic advantage (an increase in energy expenditure), resulting in a positive effect on weight loss and maintenance. However, a review of studies in which 24-hour energy expenditure was measured did not provide evidence to support a metabolic advantage of low-carbohydrate diets and showed little evidence of a metabolic advantage of high-protein (>25% of energy) diets. Nonetheless, diets high in protein, but either low or modest in carbohydrate, have resulted in greater weight losses than traditional low-fat diets. We speculate that it is the protein, and not carbohydrate, content that is important in promoting short-term weight loss and that this effect is likely due to increased satiety caused by increased dietary protein. It has been suggested that the increased satiety might help persons to be more compliant with a hypocaloric diet and achieve greater weight loss. The current evidence, combined with the need to meet all nutrient requirements, suggests that hypocaloric weight-loss diets should be moderate in carbohydrate (35% to 50% of energy), moderate in fat (25% to 35% of energy), and protein should contribute 25% to 30% of energy intake. More studies of the efficacy of weight-loss and weight-maintenance diets that address protein content are needed. In addition, controlled studies of total energy expenditure or physical activity measured under free-living conditions that directly compare high-protein diets with those containing low and moderate carbohydrate content should also be performed.

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    Journal of the American College of Nutrition 10/2014; 33(5):1-10. DOI:10.1080/07315724.2013.875441 · 1.68 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Current therapies to manage obesity are based on energy restriction and physical activity promotion. However, the role of specific dietary components for long-term weight maintenance is under debate. This review aims to illustrate some lessons from the pan-European Diogenes study, a randomized, controlled dietary intervention study, which investigated the role of dietary protein and glycemic index (GI) on weight maintenance in overweight/obese European families. For 6 months, families were randomly assigned to five ad libitum weight-maintenance diets: low-protein (LP)/low-GI (LGI), LP/high-GI (HGI), high-protein (HP)/LGI, HP/HGI, and a control diet. The main result was that the HP/LGI diet was more successful for maintaining weight loss, and has beneficial effects on cardiometabolic risks. Outcomes regarding gender, age, the model of delivery, genetic factors, and benefits on insulin sensitivity, cardiovascular risk, bone turnover, and inflammation are also reported.
    09/2014; 3(4):379-386. DOI:10.1007/s13668-014-0096-0


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