Energetics of obesity and weight control: Does diet composition matter?

Department of Nutritional Sciences, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 53706, USA.
Journal of the American Dietetic Association (Impact Factor: 3.92). 05/2005; 105(5 Suppl 1):S24-8. DOI: 10.1016/j.jada.2005.02.025
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Greater average weight losses (2.5 kg over 12 weeks) have been reported for low-carbohydrate diets (<90 g/day) compared with traditional low-fat (<25% of energy), hypocaloric diets, implying a 233 kcal/day greater energy deficit. It has therefore been suggested that a low-carbohydrate diet may provide a metabolic advantage (an increase in energy expenditure), resulting in a positive effect on weight loss and maintenance. However, a review of studies in which 24-hour energy expenditure was measured did not provide evidence to support a metabolic advantage of low-carbohydrate diets and showed little evidence of a metabolic advantage of high-protein (>25% of energy) diets. Nonetheless, diets high in protein, but either low or modest in carbohydrate, have resulted in greater weight losses than traditional low-fat diets. We speculate that it is the protein, and not carbohydrate, content that is important in promoting short-term weight loss and that this effect is likely due to increased satiety caused by increased dietary protein. It has been suggested that the increased satiety might help persons to be more compliant with a hypocaloric diet and achieve greater weight loss. The current evidence, combined with the need to meet all nutrient requirements, suggests that hypocaloric weight-loss diets should be moderate in carbohydrate (35% to 50% of energy), moderate in fat (25% to 35% of energy), and protein should contribute 25% to 30% of energy intake. More studies of the efficacy of weight-loss and weight-maintenance diets that address protein content are needed. In addition, controlled studies of total energy expenditure or physical activity measured under free-living conditions that directly compare high-protein diets with those containing low and moderate carbohydrate content should also be performed.

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    • "TEF is the energy cost associated with processing of the food for utilization and storage in the body. The composition of food matters: proteins have much higher TEF than fat, and there are some indications that diets high in protein help in regulating weight [14]. AEE includes exercise energy expenditure (EEE) and nonexercise activity thermogenesis (NEAT), which is the energy spent on daily chores, occupational activity, maintaining posture, and fidgeting [15]. "
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    • "Thus, patients included in the HP-diet group showed a better energy restriction tolerance, since the decrease in resting energy expenditure was smaller than the decrease registered in the C-diet group, regarding total weight lost. In this context, several authors support the concept that caloriereduced diets high in protein facilitate weight loss, in part, by preserving the metabolic rate (Baba et al. 1999; Mikkelsen et al. 2000; Brehm et al. 2005; Schoeller and Buchholz 2005; Meckling and Sherfey 2007). Also, it has been suggested that highprotein diets enhance metabolic rate due to an increased dietary thermogenesis (Halton and Hu 2004; Westman et al. 2007). "
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    • "Changes in the regulation of nutrient metabolism in obesity promote nutrient storage in adipose tissue ( Schoeller and Buchholz 2005 ) . This change in nutrient metabolism , rather than steady - state glucose and insulin concentrations , causes a pro - inflammatory state in adipose tissue . "
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