We sought to determine the impact of preoperative or postoperative atrial fibrillation on survival, stroke, and cardiac function after mitral valvuloplasty for mitral regurgitation.
Between 1991 and 2003, 1026 patients with nonischemic/noncardiomyopathy mitral valve regurgitation underwent mitral valve plasty in 3 centers; 663 patients remained in sinus rhythm (group A), and 363 patients had atrial fibrillation or flutter preoperatively (group B) with concomitant maze procedures (group BM, n = 163) or without maze procedures (group BN, n = 200).
Eight-year freedom from cardiovascular-related death was better in group A (99.3%) than group B (BM: 96.9%, BN: 81.6%) ( P < .001) and also better in group BM than group BN ( P = .007). The adjusted hazard ratio of group B versus group A for preoperative differences was 5.1 (95% confidence interval: 1.8-14.8). Eight-year freedom from stroke was better in group A (99.2%) than group B (BM: 98.2%, BN: 82.6%) ( P < .001) and also better in group BM than group BN ( P < .001). Patients with preoperative atrial fibrillation had larger left atria and left ventricular systolic dimensions. The adjunct maze procedure improved left ventricular systolic dimensions over mitral repair alone (group A vs B: P = .359; group BM vs BN: P = .001).
Preoperative permanent/persistent atrial fibrillation was associated with a dilated left atrium and reduced left ventricular function in patients with mitral regurgitation. Including the maze procedure with mitral repair improved survival, late cardiac function, and freedom from late stroke.
"The maze procedure is an established surgical treatment for eliminating AF. The procedure reduces cardiovascular mortality and stroke and improves cardiac function [1,2]. Furthermore, its success rate for treating lone AF is higher than 90% . "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background
Although the maze procedure is an established surgical treatment for eliminating atrial fibrillation (AF), its efficacy in patients with mitral valve disease has remained unsatisfactory. A useful predictive marker for the outcome of the maze procedure is needed. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the preoperative ratio of atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) to brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) reflects atrial fibrosis and can be used to predict the maze procedure outcome in patients with mitral valve disease.
A total of 23 consecutive patients who underwent the radial approach to the maze procedure combined with mitral valve surgery were included in this study and were divided into a sinus rhythm (SR) group (n=16) and an AF group (n=7) based on postoperative cardiac rhythm. Plasma samples were obtained at rest before the operation and were analysed for ANP and BNP levels. Atrial tissue samples taken during surgery were used to quantify interstitial fibrosis.
The preoperative ANP-to-BNP ratio in the SR group was significantly higher than that in the AF group (0.74 +/− 0.29 vs. 0.42 +/− 0.28, respectively; p=0.025). Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was used to identify factors that predict outcomes after the maze procedure. The area under the ROC curve for the ANP-to-BNP ratio (0.81) was greater than for any other preoperative factors. Moreover, the preoperative ANP-to-BNP ratio demonstrated a negative correlation with left atrial fibrosis (r=−0.69; p=0.003).
The preoperative ANP-to-BNP ratio can predict maze procedure outcome in patients with mitral valve disease, and it represents a potential biomarker for left atrial fibrosis.
Journal of Cardiothoracic Surgery 02/2013; 8(1):32. DOI:10.1186/1749-8090-8-32 · 1.03 Impact Factor
"Therefore, AF appears very frequently preoperatively in patients who are candidates for cardiac surgery, increasing the perioperative risk and the occurrence of postoperative complications . Preoperative AF significantly worsens the heart functional status, increasing the incidence of postoperative complications, such as delirium, stroke, and low cardiac output syndrome, which lead to negative healthcare patient outcomes, including higher mortality and prolonged ICU and in-hospital stay [21–23]. In addition, a point of great interest is that while almost 30% of patients undergoing cardiac surgery will develop postoperative AF, if patients have history of AF (preoperative AF), this probability becomes almost 2 times greater (60%) [24, 25]. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The prediction of intensive care unit length of stay (ICU-LOS) could contribute to more efficient ICU resources' allocation and better planning of care among cardiac surgery patients. The aim of this study was to identify the preoperative and intraoperative predictors for prolonged cardiac surgery ICU-LOS. An observational cohort study was conducted among 150 consecutive patients, who were admitted to the cardiac surgery ICU of a tertiary hospital of Athens, Greece from September 2010 to January 2011. Multivariate regression analysis revealed that patients with increased creatinine levels preoperatively (odds ratio (OR) 3.0, P = 0.049), history of atrial fibrillation (AF) (OR 6.3, P = 0.012) and high EuroSCORE values (OR 2.6, P = 0.017) had a significant greater probability to stay in the ICU for more than 2 days. In addition, intraoperative hyperglycemia (OR 3.0, P = 0.004) was strongly associated with longer ICU-LOS. In conclusion, the high perioperative risk, the history of AF and renal dysfunction, and the intraoperative hyperglycemia are significant predictors of prolonged ICU stay. The early identification of patients at risk could allow the efficient ICU resources' allocation and the reduction of healthcare costs. This would contribute to nursing care planning depending on the availability of healthcare personnel and ICU bed capacity.
"In spite of multiple right and left atrial incisions, the right atrial transport function was demonstrated in 98% of patients, and the left atrial transport function was demonstrated in 93% of patients. Furthermore, the Maze procedure virtually eliminated the risk of stroke or other thromboembolism . Other medical centres reproduced these excellent results that confirm the safety of the Maze procedure and its efficacy at restoring sinus rhythm leading to the virtual elimination of late strokes. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Atrial fibrillation is the most commonly sustained arrhythmia in man. While it affects millions of patients worldwide, its incidence will markedly increase with an aging population. Primary goals of AF therapy are to (1) reduce embolic complications, particularly stroke, (2) alleviate symptoms, and (3) prevent long-term heart remodelling. These have been proven to be a challenge as there are major limitations in our knowledge of the pathological and electrophysiological mechanisms underlying AF. Although advances continue to be made in the medical management of this condition, pharmacotherapy is often unsuccessful. Because of the high recurrence rate of AF despite antiarrhythmic drug therapy for maintenance of sinus rhythm and the adverse effects of these drugs, there has been growing interest in nonpharmacological strategies. Surgery for treatment of AF has been around for some time. The Cox-Maze procedure is the gold standard for the surgical treatment of atrial fibrillation and has more than 90% success in eliminating atrial fibrillation. Although the cut and sew maze is very effective, it has been superseded by newer operations that rely on alternate energy sources to create lines of conduction block. In addition, the evolution of improved ablation technology and instrumentation has facilitated the development of minimally invasive approaches. In this paper, the rationale for surgical ablation for atrial fibrillation and the different surgical techniques that were developed will be explored. In addition, it will detail the new approaches to surgical ablation of atrial fibrillation that employ alternate energy sources.
Cardiology Research and Practice 06/2011; 2011(1):214940. DOI:10.4061/2011/214940
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