ATP and heat production in human skeletal muscle during dynamic exercise: higher efficiency of anaerobic than aerobic ATP resynthesis.
ABSTRACT The aim of the present study was to simultaneously examine skeletal muscle heat production and ATP turnover in humans during dynamic exercise with marked differences in aerobic metabolism. This was done to test the hypothesis that efficiency is higher in anaerobic than aerobic ATP resynthesis. Six healthy male subjects performed 90 s of low intensity knee-extensor exercise with (OCC) and without thigh occlusion (CON-LI) as well as 90 s of high intensity exercise (CON-HI) that continued from the CON-LI bout. Muscle heat production was determined by continuous measurements of muscle heat accumulation and heat release to the blood. Muscle ATP production was quantified by repeated measurements of thigh oxygen uptake as well as blood and muscle metabolite changes. All temperatures of the thigh were equalized to approximately 37 degrees C prior to exercise by a water-perfused heating cuff. Oxygen uptake accounted for 80 +/- 2 and 59 +/- 4 %, respectively, of the total ATP resynthesis in CON-LI and CON-HI, whereas it was negligible in OCC. The rise in muscle temperature was lower (P < 0.05) in OCC than CON-LI (0.32 +/- 0.04 vs. 0.37 +/- 0.03 degrees C). The mean rate of heat production was also lower (P < 0.05) in OCC than CON-LI (36 +/- 4 vs. 57 +/- 4 J s-1). Mechanical efficiency was 52 +/- 4 % after 15 s of OCC and remained constant, whereas it decreased (P < 0.05) from 56 +/- 5 to 32 +/- 3 % during CON-LI. During CON-HI, mechanical efficiency transiently increased (P < 0.05) to 47 +/- 4 %, after which it decreased (P < 0.05) to 36 +/- 3 % at the end of CON-HI. Assuming a fully coupled mitochondrial respiration, the ATP turnover per unit of work was calculated to be unaltered during OCC (approximately 20 mmol ATP kJ-1), whereas it increased (P < 0.05) from 21 +/- 4 to 29 +/- 3 mmol ATP kJ-1 during CON-LI and further (P < 0.05) to 37 +/- 3 mmol ATP kJ-1 during CON-HI. The present data confirm the hypothesis that heat loss is lower in anaerobic ATP resynthesis than in oxidative phosphorylation and can in part explain the finding that efficiency declines markedly during dynamic exercise. In addition, the rate of ATP turnover apparently increases during constant load low intensity exercise. Alternatively, mitochondrial efficiency is lowered as exercise progresses, since ATP turnover was unaltered during the ischaemic exercise bout.
Article: ATP consumption and efficiency of human single muscle fibers with different myosin isoform composition.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Chemomechanical transduction was studied in single fibers isolated from human skeletal muscle containing different myosin isoforms. Permeabilized fibers were activated by laser-pulse photolytic release of 1.5 mM ATP from p(3)-1-(2-nitrophenyl)ethylester of ATP. The ATP hydrolysis rate in the muscle fibers was determined with a fluorescently labeled phosphate-binding protein. The effects of varying load and shortening velocity during contraction were investigated. The myosin isoform composition was determined in each fiber by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. At 12 degrees C large variations (three- to fourfold) were found between slow and fast (2A and 2A-2B) fibers in their maximum shortening velocity, peak power output, velocity at which peak power is produced, isometric ATPase activity, and tension cost. Isometric tension was similar in all fiber groups. The ATP consumption rate increased during shortening in proportion to shortening velocity. At 12 degrees C the maximum efficiency was similar (0.21-0.27) for all fiber types and was reached at a higher speed of shortening for the faster fibers. In all fibers, peak efficiency increased to approximately 0.4 when the temperature was raised from 12 degrees C to 20 degrees C. The results were simulated with a kinetic scheme describing the ATPase cycle, in which the rate constant controlling ADP release is sensitive to the load on the muscle. The main difference between slow and fast fibers was reproduced by increasing the rate constant for the hydrolysis step, which was rate limiting at low loads. Simulation of the effect of increasing temperature required an increase in the force per cross-bridge and an acceleration of the rate constants in the reaction pathway.Biophysical Journal 09/2000; 79(2):945-61. · 3.65 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The catabolism of adenine nucleotides (AdN) in rat soleus muscle (predominantly slow twitch) is very different from that in fast-twitch muscle. AMP deaminase is highly inhibited during brief (3 min) intense (120 tetani/min) in situ stimulation, resulting in little inosine 5'-monophosphate (IMP) accumulation (0.21 mumol/g). Even with ligation of the femoral artery during the same brief intense contraction conditions there is surprisingly little increase in IMP (0.37 mumol/g), although AdN depletion is evident (-1.30 mumol/g). We have tested the hypothesis that accumulation of purine nucleosides and bases accounts for the AdN depletion by measuring purine degradation products using high-performance liquid chromatography. There was no stoichiometric accumulation of purine degradation products to account for the observed AdN depletion even though metabolite recovery was essentially quantitative. We hypothesis that under these conditions AdN are converted to a form different from purine nucleoside and base degradation products. In contrast to the inhibition of AMP deamination seen during brief ischemia, slow-twitch muscle depletes a substantial fraction (28%) of muscle AdN (1.75 mumol/g) that can be accounted for stoichiometrically as purine degradation products during an extended 10-min ischemic period of mild (12 tetani/min) contraction conditions. IMP accumulation (1 mumol/g) is most prominent with inosine, accounting for 23% (0.4 mumol/g) of the depleted AdN, showing that slow-twitch red muscle is capable of both AMP deamination and the subsequent production of purine nucleosides during an extended period of ischemic contractions. The present results indicate that AdN metabolism in the soleus muscle is complex, yielding expected degradation products or a loss of total purines, depending on contraction conditions.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)The American journal of physiology 03/1990; 258(2 Pt 1):C258-65.