Susceptibility of bovine mesenchymal stem cells to bovine herpesvirus 4.
ABSTRACT Bovine herpesvirus 4 (BoHV-4) is a gamma herpesvirus with no clear disease association. Previous studies have demonstrated that macrophages can harbour persistent BoHV-4. Since mesenchymal stem cells in bone marrow regulate the differentiation and proliferation of adjacent haematopoietic precursors, such as macrophages, the interaction between BoHV-4 and mesenchymal stem cells was investigated. Primary bovine mesenchymal stem cells were highly permissive to support full replication of BoHV-4. This finding could be considered a new important step in studies on the potential pathogenesis related to BoHV-4.
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ABSTRACT: Herpesvirus Movar 33/63 is the prototype strain of a group of slow growth bovine herpesviruses which have been reported to exhibit cytomegalovirus-like characteristics. These viruses have the ability to produce long-term persistent infections of spleen and other lymphoreticular organs in both cattle and rabbits. Rabbits were inoculated with a suspension of Movar 33/63 propagated in cell culture, and sacrificed at intervals between 3 days and 49 weeks post-infection. Cell-free infectious virus was detected only in conjunctival secretions, buffy coat and spleen homogenates up to 7 days post-infection. Beyond this brief acute replication period, co-cultivation or explantation was required for the detection of viral infectivity. The spleen, the only organ from which virus was consistently recovered, exhibited the highest infectious titres as detected by infectious centre assay. The use of several cell isolation techniques (including solid-phase fractionation on ligand-coated surfaces, nylon wool filtration, affinity chromatography, immunocytolysis and plastic surface adherence) allowed separation of B-enriched, T-enriched and non-T, non-B cell fractions. Infectivity during the acute and persistent phase of the infection was associated with the non-T, non-B population which was highly enriched in adherent and non-adherent spleen mononuclear phagocytes. No virus was isolated from either T or B cells.Journal of General Virology 10/1985; 66 ( Pt 9):1941-51. · 3.13 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Although bovine herpesvirus-4 (BHV-4), a gammaherpesvirus lacking a clear disease association, has been demonstrated in many tissues during persistent BHV-4 infection, a likely site of virus persistence is in cells of the monocyte/macrophage lineage. To establish an in vitro model of persistent infection potentially useful for examining the molecular mechanisms of BHV-4 persistence/latency, we infected the bovine macrophage cell line BOMAC. Following extensive cell death, surviving cells were found to be persistently infected, maintaining the viral genome over many passages and producing low levels of infectious virus. Although selection was unnecessary for the maintenance of the viral genome, cells persistently infected with recombinant BHV-4 containing a neomycin-resistance gene could be selected with geneticin, thus confirming that persistent BHV-4 infection was compatible with cell survival and replication. Furthermore, persistent BHV-4 infection caused no decrease in the growth rate of BOMAC cells. Sodium butyrate, which reactivates latent gammaherpesviruses in vitro, or dexamethasone, which reactivates latent BHV-4 in vivo, increased viral DNA by 10- to 15-fold in persistently infected BOMAC cells. This suggests that reactivation of latent BHV-4 by dexamethasone in vivo might involve direct action of dexamethasone on latently infected cells.Journal of General Virology 06/2001; 82(Pt 5):1181-5. · 3.13 Impact Factor