Relative expression levels of Th1 and Th2 cytokine mRNA are independent prognostic factors in patients with ovarian cancer.
ABSTRACT The aim of the present study was to examine mRNA expression levels of Th1 (TNF-alpha , IFN-gamma, and IL-12p40) and Th2 (IL-6 and IL-10) cytokines for any association with clinicopathological characteristics of epithelial ovarian cancer. mRNA was isolated, and cDNA prepared from 40 samples of epithelial ovarian cancers. Expression level of each cytokine mRNA was examined by the real-time PCR technique (GAPDH gene, internal control). Expression ratio (target gene/GAPDH) was used to evaluate gene expression. Results were analyzed against clinical stage, histological grade, and histological type. Prognostic significance of expression levels of each combination of Th1/Th2 values was assessed. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) expression levels were significantly higher in serous adenocarcinoma than in non-serous adenocarcinoma (p<0.05), but with no difference between individual cytokine mRNA expression levels and clinical stage or histological grade. Log-rank testing showed that high TNF-alpha mRNA expression (p=0.033) and the diameter of largest residual lesion at initial surgery (p=0.012) significantly correlate with longer survival in advanced stage (II/III/IV) ovarian carcinomas. In examining all combinations of Th1/Th2 expression values, the most significant association was between high IFN-gamma.IL-12p40/IL-6 expression levels and better prognosis in advanced stage (II/III/IV) ovarian carcinomas (p=0.004). In multivariate analysis, high IFN-gamma.IL-12p40/IL-6 expression (p=0.009) and the diameter of residual lesion (p=0.011) remained significantly associated with survival, whereas high TNF-alpha expression lost significance. In conclusion, Th1 and Th2 cytokines might play an important role in regulating the immune reaction in epithelial ovarian cancer cells. IFN-gamma.IL-12p40/IL-6 expression may be a useful prognostic molecular marker for patients with advanced ovarian cancer.
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ABSTRACT: During pregnancy an environment allowing installation of tolerance toward the fetus is set up locally at the materno-fetal interface. Numerous effectors of immunity are involved in this tolerance (NK cell, T cell, Macrophages, dendritic cell). Specific mechanisms during pregnancy attract locally these immunological cells. In the decidua, they are educated toward tolerance. These mechanisms evolve during the pregnancy because at the end of the pregnancy, tolerance is broken to prepare and activate the labor. Ovarian tumors, after having surmounted the immunosurveillance, like trophoblast, chair the installation of a tolerance of their host facilitating the development of the disease. The blocking of these mechanisms of tolerance coupled with activation of mechanisms of defenses offer new perspectives in the treatment of the ovarian cancer. The authors suggest showing the analogies of the tolerance observed during ovarian cancer and pregnancy. The knowledge of the orchestration of the physiological mechanisms observed during pregnancy will offer new therapeutic targets.Journal de Gynécologie Obstétrique et Biologie de la Reproduction 11/2012; · 0.42 Impact Factor
Article: Dysregulated expression of both the costimulatory CD28 and inhibitory CTLA-4 molecules in PB T cells of advanced cervical cancer patients suggests systemic immunosuppression related to disease progression.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Cervical cancer (CC) occurs more frequently in women who are immunosuppressed, suggesting that both local and systemic immune abnormalities may be involved in the evolution of the disease. Costimulatory CD28 and inhibitory CTLA-4 molecules expressed in T cells play a key role in the balanced immune responses. There has been demonstrated a relation between CD28, CTLA-4, and IFN genes in susceptibility to CC, suggesting their importance in CC development. Therefore, we assessed the pattern of CD28 and CTLA-4 expression in T cells from PB of CC patients with advanced CC (stages III and IV according to FIGO) compared to controls. We also examined the ability of PBMCs to secrete IFN-gamma. We found lower frequencies of freshly isolated and ex vivo stimulated CD4 + CD28+ and CD8 + CD28+ T cells in CC patients than in controls. Loss of CD28 expression was more pronounced in the CD8+ T subset. Markedly increased proportions of CTLA-4+ T cells in CC patients before and after culture compared to controls were also observed. In addition, patients' T cells exhibited abnormal kinetics of surface CTLA-4 expression, with the peak at 24 h of stimulation, which was in contrast to corresponding normal T cells, revealing maximum CTLA-4 expression at 72 h of stimulation. Of note, markedly higher IFN-gamma concentrations were shown in supernatants of stimulated PBMCs from CC patients. Conclusions: Our report shows the dysregulated CD28 and CTLA-4 expression in PB T cells of CC patients, which may lead to impaired function of these lymphocytes and systemic immunosuppression related to disease progression.Pathology & Oncology Research 11/2011; 18(2):479-89. · 1.37 Impact Factor
Article: Systematic analysis of immune infiltrates in high-grade serous ovarian cancer reveals CD20, FoxP3 and TIA-1 as positive prognostic factors.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Tumor-infiltrating T cells are associated with survival in epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC), but their functional status is poorly understood, especially relative to the different risk categories and histological subtypes of EOC. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Tissue microarrays containing high-grade serous, endometrioid, mucinous and clear cell tumors were analyzed immunohistochemically for the presence of lymphocytes, dendritic cells, neutrophils, macrophages, MHC class I and II, and various markers of activation and inflammation. In high-grade serous tumors from optimally debulked patients, positive associations were seen between intraepithelial cells expressing CD3, CD4, CD8, CD45RO, CD25, TIA-1, Granzyme B, FoxP3, CD20, and CD68, as well as expression of MHC class I and II by tumor cells. Disease-specific survival was positively associated with the markers CD8, CD3, FoxP3, TIA-1, CD20, MHC class I and class II. In other histological subtypes, immune infiltrates were less prevalent, and the only markers associated with survival were MHC class II (positive association in endometrioid cases) and myeloperoxidase (negative association in clear cell cases). CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Host immune responses to EOC vary widely according to histological subtype and the extent of residual disease. TIA-1, FoxP3 and CD20 emerge as new positive prognostic factors in high-grade serous EOC from optimally debulked patientsPLoS ONE 02/2009; 4(7):e6412. · 4.09 Impact Factor