Skeletal muscle wasting in tumor-bearing rats is associated with MyoD down-regulation.
ABSTRACT Cachexia is a syndrome characterized by profound skeletal muscle wasting that frequently complicates malignancies. A number of studies indicate that protein hypercatabolism, largely mediated by classical hormones and cytokines, is the major component of muscle depletion. Impaired regeneration has been suggested to contribute to the reduction of muscle size. In particular, it has been shown that the expression of MyoD, a muscle-specific transcription factor, is down-regulated by cytokines such as TNFalpha and IFNgamma in a NF-kappaB-dependent posttranscriptional manner. The present study investigated whether modulations of the transcription factor MyoD are associated with the onset of muscle wasting in a well established model of cancer cachexia. Rats bearing the Yoshida AH-130 hepatoma develop a condition of muscle protein hypercatabolism, largely dependent on TNFalpha bioactivity. In the gastrocnemius of these animals the expression of MyoD was markedly reduced, paralleling the decrease of muscle weight. This pattern is associated with increased nuclear translocation of AP-1, while DNA-binding assays did not detect any change in NF-kappaB activity. This is the first observation demonstrating that muscle depletion in tumor-bearing rats is associated with a down-regulation of MyoD levels. Although the underlying mechanisms remain to be clarified, this change is compatible with the hypothesis that a reduced expression of molecules involved in the regulation of the regenerative response may concur to muscle wasting in cancer cachexia.
SourceAvailable from: Kunihiro Sakuma[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Recent advances in our understanding of the biology of muscle, and how anabolic and catabolic stimuli interact to control muscle mass and function, have led to new interest in the pharmacological treatment of muscle wasting. Loss of muscle occurs as a consequence of several chronic diseases (cachexia) as well as normal aging (sarcopenia). Although many negative regulators [Atrogin-1, muscle ring finger-1, nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB), myostatin, etc.] have been proposed to enhance protein degradation during both sarcopenia and cachexia, the adaptation of mediators markedly differs among these conditions. Sarcopenic and cachectic muscles have been demonstrated to be abundant in myostatin- and apoptosis-linked molecules. The ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) is activated during many different types of cachexia (cancer cachexia, cardiac heart failure, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease), but not many mediators of the UPS change during sarcopenia. NF-κB signaling is activated in cachectic, but not in sarcopenic, muscle. Some studies have indicated a change of autophagic signaling during both sarcopenia and cachexia, but the adaptation remains to be elucidated. This review provides an overview of the adaptive changes in negative regulators of muscle mass in both sarcopenia and cachexia.01/2012; 3(2):77-94. DOI:10.1007/s13539-011-0052-4
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ABSTRACT: Cancer cachexia is a morbid wasting syndrome common among patients with head and neck cancer. While its clinical manifestations have been well characterized, its pathophysiology remains complex. A comprehensive literature search on cancer cachexia was performed using the National Library of Medicine's PubMed. The Cochrane Library and Google search engine were also used. Recent evidence and new concepts on the pathophysiology of cancer cachexia are summarized. Targeted therapies are presented, and new concepts are highlighted. Cancer cachexia is characterized by complex, multilevel pathogenesis. It involves up-regulated tissue catabolism and impaired anabolism, release of tumor-derived catabolic factors and inflammatory cytokines, and neuroendocrine dysfunction. These culminate to create an energy-inefficient state characterized by wasting, chronic inflammation, neuroendocrine dysfunction, and anorexia. © 2007 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Head Neck, 2007Head & Neck 05/2007; 29(5):497 - 507. DOI:10.1002/hed.20630 · 3.01 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Calcineurin has been proposed to regulate skeletal muscle hypertrophy, while its relevance to the pathogenesis of muscle atrophy is unknown. The present study was aimed to investigate if perturbations of the calcineurin pathway may be involved in causing skeletal muscle atrophy in two different experimental conditions: cancer cachexia (rats bearing the AH-130 hepatoma), and hyperglycemia (rats treated with streptozotocin). Calcineurin expression in the gastrocnemius was comparable between tumor hosts and controls. By contrast, besides unchanged calcineurin mRNA levels, those of protein were lower in diabetic animals than in controls. The DNA-binding activity of the transcription factors NF-AT and MEF-2 was analysed as an indirect measure of calcineurin activity in vivo. The nuclear translocation of both factors was similar in tumor hosts and controls. Consistently with the reduced calcineurin protein levels, NF-AT DNA-binding activity significantly decreased in the gastrocnemius of diabetic rats compared to controls. Finally, muscle wasting correction afforded in the AH-130 hosts by pentoxifylline or interleukin-15 was not paralleled by changes of calcineurin mRNA levels, while treatment of diabetic animals with dehydroepiandrosterone partially prevented calcineurin down-regulation. These results suggest that modulations of calcineurin activity may be involved in the pathogenesis of muscle wasting in diabetes though not in cancer cachexia.Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 08/2007; 1770(7-1770):1028-1036. DOI:10.1016/j.bbagen.2007.03.003 · 4.66 Impact Factor