Nephrogenic syndrome of inappropriate antidiuresis.
ABSTRACT The syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH) is a common cause of hyponatremia. We describe two infants whose clinical and laboratory evaluations were consistent with the presence of SIADH, yet who had undetectable arginine vasopressin (AVP) levels. We hypothesized that they had gain-of-function mutations in the V2 vasopressin receptor (V2R). DNA sequencing of each patient's V2R gene (AVPR2) identified missense mutations in both, with resultant changes in codon 137 from arginine to cysteine or leucine. These novel mutations cause constitutive activation of the receptor and are the likely cause of the patients' SIADH-like clinical picture, which we have termed "nephrogenic syndrome of inappropriate antidiuresis."
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ABSTRACT: : Rapid correction of severe hyponatremia carries the risk of osmotic demyelination. Two recently introduced methods of correction of hyponatremia have diametrically opposite effects on aquaresis. Inhibitors of vasopressin V2 receptor (vaptans) lead to the production of dilute urine, whereas infusion of desmopressin causes urinary concentration. Identification of the category of hyponatremia that will benefit from one or the other treatment is critical. In general, vaptans are effective in hyponatremias presenting with concentrated urine and, with the exception of hypovolemic hyponatremia, can be used as their primary treatment. Desmopressin is effective in hyponatremias presenting with dilute urine or developing urinary dilution after saline infusion. In this setting, desmopressin infusion helps prevent overcorrection of the hyponatremia. Monitoring of the changes in serum sodium concentration as a guide to treatment changes is imperative regardless of the initial treatment of severe hyponatremia.This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 3.0 License, where it is permissible to download and share the work provided it is properly cited. The work cannot be changed in any way or used commercially.The American Journal of the Medical Sciences 09/2014; · 1.52 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Paediatric hyponatraemia is usually caused by an excess of antidiuretic hormone and may lead to serious neurological complications. It is challenging for clinicians to differentiate between conditions causing excess water and salt loss. This review analyses individual causes of hyponatraemia and focuses on optimal diagnostic algorithms and treatment strategies. Conclusion: Correct evaluation of hyponatraemia requires proper understanding of the aetiology and appropriate management calls for a detailed history, physical examination and specific laboratory investigations. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.Acta paediatrica (Oslo, Norway: 1992). Supplement 05/2014;
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ABSTRACT: Abstract Arginine vasopressin (AVP) plays a key role in many physiologic and pathologic processes. The most important stimulus for AVP release is a change in plasma osmolality. AVP is also involved in the response and adaptation to stress. Reliable measurement of AVP is hindered by several factors. Over 90% of AVP is tightly bound to platelets, and its estimation is influenced by the number of platelets, incomplete removal of platelets or pre-analytical processing steps. Copeptin (CTproAVP), a 39-aminoacid glycopeptide, is a C-terminal part of the precursor pre-provasopressin (pre-proAVP). Activation of the AVP system stimulates CTproAVP secretion into the circulation from the posterior pituitary gland in equimolar amounts with AVP. Therefore CTproAVP directly reflects AVP concentration and can be used as a surrogate biomarker of AVP secretion. In many studies CTproAVP represents AVP levels and its behavior represents changes in plasma osmolality, stress and various disease states, and shows some of the various physiologic and pathophysiologic conditions associated with increased or decreased AVP. Increased CTproAVP concentration is described in several studies as a strong predictor of mortality in patients with chronic heart failure and acute heart failure. Autosomal polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) patients have both central and nephrogenic defects in osmoregulation and CTproAVP balance. A possibility raised by these clinical observations is that CTproAVP may serve to identify patients who could benefit from an intervention aimed at countering AVP.Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine 06/2014; · 2.96 Impact Factor