A retrospective chart review of the clinical effects of atypical antipsychotic drugs on glycemic control in institutionalized patients with schizophrenia and comorbid diabetes mellitus
ABSTRACT The association between schizophrenia and onset of type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) is well documented. It is unclear whether this association is due to inherent risk factors in individuals with schizophrenia or to treatment with antipsychotic drugs, particularly atypical antipsychotic agents.
The goals of this retrospective, observational study were the following: (1) to determine whether adequate glycemic control could be achieved in patients with schizophrenia and comorbid DM who were undergoing treatment with atypical antipsychotic drugs, (2) to identify inherent risk factors that may affect glycemic control in this patient population, and (3) to consider the possibility that combined medication and inherent risk factors may affect glycemic control.
This was a retrospective, observational chart review that evaluated institutionalized patients in a New Jersey mental institution with concurrent diagnoses of schizophrenia and type 1 or 2 DM who were being treated with atypical antipsychotic agents (ie, olanzapine, risperidone, clozapine, or quetiapine) and were referred by their hospital internists to a weekly, half-day, in-hospital DM clinic. All patients with initial and end-point data for the efficacy measure (ie, change in glycosylated hemoglobin [HbA(1c)]) were included in the analysis. Mixed-effects linear and least-squares models were used to test whether a specific comorbidity had an effect on the change in HbA(1c) adjusted for the duration of the observation.
A total of 72 patients met entry criteria. Among the 38 patients with baseline and end-point data (20 treated with olanzapine and 18 treated with risperidone), mean (SD) HbA(1c) decreased from 8.21% (2.4%) to 7.62% (1.7%). The only baseline demographic characteristic or comorbidity that predicted significant worsening in the adjusted HbA(1c) change was hepatitis (P = 0.003).
Using appropriate, aggressive antidiabetic therapy, glycemic control was achieved in this group of patients with schizophrenia and comorbid DM who were treated with atypical antipsychotic agents.
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Hyperglycemia and new onset diabetes have been described with certain antipsychotic medications and some of the initial presentations are fatal diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA). We report 17 deaths due to DKA in psychiatric patients treated with second generation antipsychotic medications. Death certificates and toxicology data were searched for DKA and hyperglycemia. We reviewed the medical examiner records which included the autopsy, toxicology, police, and medical examiner investigators' reports. The decedents ranged in age from 32 to 57 years (average 48 years). There were 15 men and two women. The immediate cause of death was DKA in all. The psychiatric disorders included: 10 schizophrenia, three bipolar/schizophrenia, two bipolar, and two major depression. The most frequent atypical antipsychotic medications found were quetiapine and olanzapine followed by risperidone. In 16 deaths, we considered the medication as primary or contributory to the cause of death.Journal of Forensic Sciences 12/2012; 58(2). DOI:10.1111/1556-4029.12044 · 1.31 Impact Factor
Revista medica de Chile 01/2009; 137(11). DOI:10.4067/S0034-98872009001100002 · 0.37 Impact Factor
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The prevalence of type II diabetes among individuals suffering from schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorders is more than double that of the general population. By 2005, North American professional medical associations of Psychiatry, Diabetes, and Endocrinology responded by recommending continuous metabolic monitoring for this population to control complications from obesity and diabetes. However, these recommendations do not identify the types of effective treatment for people with schizophrenia who have type II diabetes. To fill this gap, this systematic evidence review identifies effective lifestyle interventions that enhance quality care in individuals who are suffering from type II diabetes and schizophrenia or other schizoaffective disorders. A systematic search from Medline, CINAHL, PsycINFO, and ISI Web of Science was conducted. Of the 1810 unique papers that were retrieved, four met the inclusion/exclusion criteria and were analyzed. The results indicate that diabetes education is effective when it incorporates diet and exercise components, while using a design that addresses challenges such as cognition, motivation, and weight gain that may result from antipsychotics. This paper begins to point to effective interventions that will improve type II diabetes management for people with schizophrenia or other schizoaffective disorders.BMC Psychiatry 03/2012; 12:24. DOI:10.1186/1471-244X-12-24 · 2.24 Impact Factor