The association between schizophrenia and onset of type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) is well documented. It is unclear whether this association is due to inherent risk factors in individuals with schizophrenia or to treatment with antipsychotic drugs, particularly atypical antipsychotic agents.
The goals of this retrospective, observational study were the following: (1) to determine whether adequate glycemic control could be achieved in patients with schizophrenia and comorbid DM who were undergoing treatment with atypical antipsychotic drugs, (2) to identify inherent risk factors that may affect glycemic control in this patient population, and (3) to consider the possibility that combined medication and inherent risk factors may affect glycemic control.
This was a retrospective, observational chart review that evaluated institutionalized patients in a New Jersey mental institution with concurrent diagnoses of schizophrenia and type 1 or 2 DM who were being treated with atypical antipsychotic agents (ie, olanzapine, risperidone, clozapine, or quetiapine) and were referred by their hospital internists to a weekly, half-day, in-hospital DM clinic. All patients with initial and end-point data for the efficacy measure (ie, change in glycosylated hemoglobin [HbA(1c)]) were included in the analysis. Mixed-effects linear and least-squares models were used to test whether a specific comorbidity had an effect on the change in HbA(1c) adjusted for the duration of the observation.
A total of 72 patients met entry criteria. Among the 38 patients with baseline and end-point data (20 treated with olanzapine and 18 treated with risperidone), mean (SD) HbA(1c) decreased from 8.21% (2.4%) to 7.62% (1.7%). The only baseline demographic characteristic or comorbidity that predicted significant worsening in the adjusted HbA(1c) change was hepatitis (P = 0.003).
Using appropriate, aggressive antidiabetic therapy, glycemic control was achieved in this group of patients with schizophrenia and comorbid DM who were treated with atypical antipsychotic agents.
"While it has been reported that people with schizophrenia may be genetically predisposed to type II diabetes, several other risk factors could contribute to the development of type II diabetes among people with schizophrenia . Some antipsychotic medications such as olanzapine and clozapine, can cause side effects that promote the onset of type II diabetes [8-10]. These side effects include weight gain, dyslipidemia, hypertension, cardiovascular disease and decreased glucose tolerance [4,6,11]. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The prevalence of type II diabetes among individuals suffering from schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorders is more than double that of the general population. By 2005, North American professional medical associations of Psychiatry, Diabetes, and Endocrinology responded by recommending continuous metabolic monitoring for this population to control complications from obesity and diabetes. However, these recommendations do not identify the types of effective treatment for people with schizophrenia who have type II diabetes. To fill this gap, this systematic evidence review identifies effective lifestyle interventions that enhance quality care in individuals who are suffering from type II diabetes and schizophrenia or other schizoaffective disorders.
A systematic search from Medline, CINAHL, PsycINFO, and ISI Web of Science was conducted. Of the 1810 unique papers that were retrieved, four met the inclusion/exclusion criteria and were analyzed.
The results indicate that diabetes education is effective when it incorporates diet and exercise components, while using a design that addresses challenges such as cognition, motivation, and weight gain that may result from antipsychotics.
This paper begins to point to effective interventions that will improve type II diabetes management for people with schizophrenia or other schizoaffective disorders.
"A number of the current guidelines on the management of comorbid diabetes in association with schizophrenia support the view that it is important to manage psychotic symptoms to be able to manage the diabetes (Holt and Peveler, 2010). A retrospective chart review (n = 72) demonstrated that using aggressive anti-diabetic therapy, glycaemic control was achieved in a group of patients with schizophrenia and comorbid diabetes mellitus who were treated with atypical antipsychotics (Krosnick and Wilson, 2005). This study showed that pre-existing hepatitis was associated with a worsening of diabetes control. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The 2009 World Health Organization report on global health risks identifies hypertension, smoking, raised glucose, physical inactivity, obesity and dyslipidaemia, in that order, as being the top six modifiable global mortality risk factors. Patients with schizophrenia have high levels of all these risk factors. There are a small number of studies showing that interventions can improve these, but prospective long-term studies are not available to show their impact on mortality. A number of studies are now supporting the view that patients with schizophrenia may be dying prematurely as they are not gaining access to or receiving the same medical care as the general population. The literature now suggests that low cardiorespiratory fitness and muscle strength are among the strongest predictors of all-cause mortality in the general population. Smoking is still one of the largest risk factors for premature all-cause mortality. The literature supports the thesis that lifestyle intervention programmes addressing exercise, smoking cessation and compliance with medication are likely to have significant impact on mortality in schizophrenia. It will be important to ensure that all patients with schizophrenia have advocates to ensure appropriate treatment and avoid prejudice, and to establish fitness standards in schizophrenia.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective: This prospective observational study compared the 3-year clinical and functional course of schizophrenia among individuals with and without diabetes at study entry.Method: Data were drawn from a large, 3-year, multisite, prospective, naturalistic study of treatment for schizophrenia-related disorders. The study was conducted in the United States between July 1997 and September 2003 and represented treatment practices in diverse systems of care. Participants were diagnosed with schizophrenia or schizoaffective or schizophreniform disorders based on DSM-IV criteria. Clinical and functional outcomes were assessed at study enrollment and at 12-month intervals using standard psychiatric measures, medical records, and a validated patient-reported questionnaire. Diabetes status was determined by participant interview at enrollment. Statistical analyses used mixed models with repeated measures.Results: Of 594 participants queried about comorbid medical conditions at enrollment, 76 (12.8%) reported having diabetes. Other comor-bid conditions were reported by 79% of the diabetes group (N = 60) and 50% of the nondiabetes group (N = 259). Across the 3-year study, participants with diabetes differed significantly from participants without diabetes on 2 of 36 outcome measures: more contacts with nonpsychiatrist physicians (p < .001) and poorer physical health (p = .015). Groups did not differ significantly on mental health symptomatology, mental health resource utilization, legal and safety issues, substance use, productivity, activities and relationships, or quality of life.Conclusions: In this 3-year, prospective, naturalistic study, the course of schizophrenia did not differ significantly between participants with and without diabetes, although persons with diabetes did have poorer physical health and more contacts with nonpsychiatrist physicians. Findings highlight the need for better medical treatment for people with schizophrenia, both with and without comorbid diabetes.
The Primary Care Companion to The Journal of Clinical Psychiatry 04/2007; 9(2):122-8. DOI:10.4088/PCC.v09n0206
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