Health status in patients with sub-clinical hypothyroidism
ABSTRACT Sub-clinical hypothyroidism (SCH) is a common disorder. People with this condition may have symptoms which could affect their perception of health. Therefore, the perceived health status of people with SCH was assessed and compared with population-matched norms.
A prospective cross-sectional survey.
Seventy-one adults with SCH, age range 18-64 years were studied. Perceived health status was measured by the Short Form-36 (SF-36) version 2 questionaire, which has been validated in a UK population setting. The SF-36 has eight scales measuring physical functioning, role physical, bodily pain, general health, vitality, social functioning, role emotional and mental health. Their SF-36 scores were compared with UK normative data after matching for age and sex and are reported as z-scores.
Scores of all eight SF-36 scales were significantly lower in people with SCH compared with the normative population. A negative score (compared with zero of the normative population) indicates worse health status. The most significantly impaired aspects of health status were vitality and role limitations due to physical problems (role physical scale) with z-scores (95% confidence intervals) of -1.01 (-0.74 to -1.29) and -0.73 (-0.43 to -1.04) respectively. Thyroid autoimmunity did not influence the results.
Perceived health status is significantly impaired in people with SCH when compared with UK normative population scores. This needs to be taken into consideration by clinicians when managing patients with this disease.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The decline in circulating estrogen levels in peri- and postmenopause has a wide range of physiological effects, including atrophy of tissues in the urogenital tract. Vaginal atrophy is an important contributor to postmenopausal sexual dysfunction. To provide a framework for clinical evaluation and clinical management of sexual dysfunction secondary to vaginal atrophy. Conduct a brief overview of literature on evaluation and treatment of vaginal atrophy, augmented with the authors' clinical observations and experience. Estrogen decline disrupts many physiological responses characteristic of sexual arousal, including smooth muscle relaxation, vasocongestion, and vaginal lubrication; genital tissues depend on continued estrogen and androgen stimulation for normal function. An upward shift in vaginal pH as the result of vaginal atrophy alters the normal vaginal flora. Reduced lubrication capability and reduced tissue elasticity, in addition to shortening and narrowing of the vaginal vault, can lead to painful and/or unpleasant intercourse. At the same time, diminished sensory response may reduce orgasmic intensity. Other contributors to peri- and postmenopausal sexual dysfunction include reduced androgen levels, aging of multiple body systems, and side-effects of medications. Workup of sexual health problems starts by taking a comprehensive sexual, medical, and psychosocial history, followed by complete physical examination and laboratory evaluation. Clinical management includes measures to preserve and enhance overall health, adjustment of medication regimes to reduce or avoid side-effects, and topical or systemic hormone supplementation with estrogens and/or androgens. No single therapeutic approach is appropriate for every woman with peri- or postmenopausal sexual dysfunction; instead, treatment should be based on a comprehensive evaluation and consideration of medical and psychosocial contributors to the individual's dysfunction. Further research is required to establish optimal regimens of hormonal and nonhormonal agents, including dosages/dosage forms and duration of treatment, for specific subtypes of sexual dysfunction.Journal of Sexual Medicine 10/2005; 2 Suppl 3(s3):154-65. DOI:10.1111/j.1743-6109.2005.00131.x · 3.15 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The importance of patient-reported outcomes such as health-related quality of life (HRQL) in clinical research is increasingly acknowledged. In order to yield valid results, the measurement properties of HRQL questionnaires must be thoroughly investigated. One aspect of such a validation process is the demonstration of content validity, i.e. that the questionnaire covers all relevant aspects. We review studies reporting on consequences of thyroid disorders and present the frequency of identified aspects, both overall HRQL issues and classical thyroid symptoms, in order to evaluate which issues are relevant for patients with thyroid diseases. Furthermore, existing questionnaires for thyroid patients are reviewed. A systematic search was performed in the Medline, Cinahl and Psycinfo databases and the reference lists of the relevant articles were hand-searched. Seventy-five relevant studies were identified. According to these studies, patients with untreated thyroid disease suffer from a wide range of symptoms and have major impairment in most areas of HRQL. Furthermore, the studies indicate that impairments in HRQL are also frequent in the long term. Six HRQL questionnaires for thyroid patients were identified. Generally, data supporting the validity of these questionnaires were sparse. According to the available literature, the quality of life of thyroid patients is substantially impaired over a wide range of aspects of HRQL in the untreated phase and continues to be so in many patients also in the long term. Studies systematically exploring the relative importance of these various aspects to thyroid patients are lacking, as is a comprehensive, validated thyroid-specific HRQL questionnaire.European Journal of Endocrinology 05/2006; 154(4):501-10. DOI:10.1530/eje.1.02124 · 3.69 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Hypothyroidism has been shown to be associated with a reduction in serum testosterone level in males. This reduction in testosterone is reversible by thyroxine replacement therapy. However, to the best of our knowledge, it is not yet known, whether a similar reduction in serum testosterone level is observed in subclinically hypothyroid males [thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) < 10 mIU/L] in whom the benefits of thyroxine replacement therapy are still controversial. Our goal was to investigate the putative connections between subclinical hypothyroidism and the circulating levels of gonadotrophins and gonadal steroids in males (mean age +/- SEM, 34.67 +/- 1.52 years; ranging from 20 to 54 years). The serum samples from patients showing normal euthyroid and subclinical hypothyroid profiles (TSH < 10 mIU/L) were further analysed for the levels of luteinizing hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone, prolactin, testosterone, sex hormone-binding globulin, progesterone and oestradiol. Subclinical hypothyroidism was associated with a decrease in the levels of serum testosterone and its precursor progesterone. The data suggest that serum testosterone declines because of the non-availability of its precursor progesterone. The level of oestradiol was similar in both the groups, suggesting a greater conversion rate of testosterone to oestradiol in subclinically hypothyroid males, in order to maintain the oestradiol levels. Prolactin levels were slightly but significantly increased in subclinical hypothyroidism. To the best of our information this is a novel report, which shows a direct association between subclinical hypothyroidism and hypoandrogenaemia. Testosterone deficiency and its symptoms should be kept in view while managing subclinical hypothyroidism in male patients. Further studies are needed in order to reveal the physiological and molecular mechanisms leading to hypoandrogenaemia in subclinical hypothyroidism (TSH < 10 mIU/L).International Journal of Andrology 02/2007; 30(1):14-20. DOI:10.1111/j.1365-2605.2006.00705.x · 3.21 Impact Factor