Health status in patients with sub-clinical hypothyroidism
Department of Diabetes and Endocrinology, Queen Elizabeth Hospital, Gateshead NE9 6SX, UK. European Journal of Endocrinology
(Impact Factor: 4.07).
06/2005; 152(5):713-7. DOI: 10.1530/eje.1.01907
Sub-clinical hypothyroidism (SCH) is a common disorder. People with this condition may have symptoms which could affect their perception of health. Therefore, the perceived health status of people with SCH was assessed and compared with population-matched norms.
A prospective cross-sectional survey.
Seventy-one adults with SCH, age range 18-64 years were studied. Perceived health status was measured by the Short Form-36 (SF-36) version 2 questionaire, which has been validated in a UK population setting. The SF-36 has eight scales measuring physical functioning, role physical, bodily pain, general health, vitality, social functioning, role emotional and mental health. Their SF-36 scores were compared with UK normative data after matching for age and sex and are reported as z-scores.
Scores of all eight SF-36 scales were significantly lower in people with SCH compared with the normative population. A negative score (compared with zero of the normative population) indicates worse health status. The most significantly impaired aspects of health status were vitality and role limitations due to physical problems (role physical scale) with z-scores (95% confidence intervals) of -1.01 (-0.74 to -1.29) and -0.73 (-0.43 to -1.04) respectively. Thyroid autoimmunity did not influence the results.
Perceived health status is significantly impaired in people with SCH when compared with UK normative population scores. This needs to be taken into consideration by clinicians when managing patients with this disease.
Available from: Abimbola A Akintola
- "Three relatively large studies that measured health status of participants with an elevated TSH were initially included. However, they were later excluded because assessment of mood, and general and mental health status was done qualitatively, without specifying whether global cognition or specific cognitive domains were measured (Razvi et al., 2005; Gulseren et al., 2006; Vigario et al., 2009). "
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ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH), defined as elevated thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) and normal thyroid hormone levels, and cognitive impairment are both common in older people. While the relation between overt hypothyroidism and cognitive impairment is well established, data on the association between SCH and cognitive impairment are conflicting. This systematic review and meta-analysis was performed to assess available evidence on the association of SCH with cognition in community dwelling, relatively healthy older adults. PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science, COCHRANE, CINAHL, PsycINFO, and Academic Search Premier (January 1966 to April 1, 2015) were searched without language restrictions, as were references of key articles, for studies on the association between SCH and cognition in older adults (>60 years). These studies were reviewed by two independent reviewers according to predefined criteria for eligibility and methodological quality, and data were extracted using standardized forms. Of the 844 reports initially identified, 270 remained after exclusion of duplicates. Of the 270, 15 studies comprising 19,944 subjects, of whom 1,199 had subclinical hypothyroidism were included. Data from the 15 studies was pooled, and meta-analyzed cross-sectionally for global cognition [assessed by Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE)], executive function, and memory, using random effects models. Pooled effect size (ES) for MMSE was −0.01 (95% CI −0.09, 0.08), with heterogeneity (I2) of 55.1%. Pooled ES was < 0.001 (95% CI −0.10, 0.09) for executive function (I2 = 13.5%), and 0.01 (95% CI −0.12, 0.14) for memory (I2 = 46.9%). In addition, prospective analysis including four studies showed pooled ES of 0.033 (95% CI −0.001 − 0.067) for MMSE (I2 < 0.001%), indicating that subclinical hypothyroidism was not significantly associated with accelerated cognitive decline. This systematic review and meta-analysis provides no evidence that supports an association between SCH and cognitive impairment in relatively healthy older adults.
Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience 08/2015; 7. DOI:10.3389/fnagi.2015.00150 · 4.00 Impact Factor
Available from: Kirti Sharma
- "Hypothyroidism in non-demented older adults is associated with impairments in learning, word fluency, visual-spatial abilities, some aspect of attention, visual scanning and motor speed. Cognitive functions can be assessed by evoked potential e.g., P300 wave of event related potential (ERP). Some researchers have found that subclinical hypothyroidism is associated with changes in mood and cognitive functioning while other were of the opinion that no correlation exists between these two. "
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ABSTRACT: Hypothyroidism is associated with significant neurocognitive deficits because hypothyroidism prevents the brain from adequately sustaining the energy consuming processes needed for neurotransmission, memory, and other higher brain functions. Hence, the study was done to assess the cognitive functions of newly diagnosed subclinical and clinical hypothyroid patients by evoked response potential P300.
75 patients each of newly diagnosed subclinical and clinical hypothyroid patients attending endocrinology clinic and 75 healthy age and sex matched euthyroid controls were considered for the study. P300 was recorded with Record Medicare System Polyrite, Chandigarh using auditory "oddball paradigm". The data was analyzed using ANOVA followed by post Tukey's test.
Newly diagnosed clinical hypothyroid patients showed a significant increase in P300 latency compared to control (P < 0.05) and subclinical cases (P < 0.01) while there was no significant difference between the P300 latency of subclinical cases and control group. Also, there was no significant difference in P300 amplitude among the three groups.
P300 latency in case of newly diagnosed hypothyroid clinical cases is significantly increased compared to newly diagnosed subclinical cases and control.
03/2014; 5(1):63-6. DOI:10.4103/0976-9668.127290
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ABSTRACT: The decline in circulating estrogen levels in peri- and postmenopause has a wide range of physiological effects, including atrophy of tissues in the urogenital tract. Vaginal atrophy is an important contributor to postmenopausal sexual dysfunction.
To provide a framework for clinical evaluation and clinical management of sexual dysfunction secondary to vaginal atrophy.
Conduct a brief overview of literature on evaluation and treatment of vaginal atrophy, augmented with the authors' clinical observations and experience.
Estrogen decline disrupts many physiological responses characteristic of sexual arousal, including smooth muscle relaxation, vasocongestion, and vaginal lubrication; genital tissues depend on continued estrogen and androgen stimulation for normal function. An upward shift in vaginal pH as the result of vaginal atrophy alters the normal vaginal flora. Reduced lubrication capability and reduced tissue elasticity, in addition to shortening and narrowing of the vaginal vault, can lead to painful and/or unpleasant intercourse. At the same time, diminished sensory response may reduce orgasmic intensity. Other contributors to peri- and postmenopausal sexual dysfunction include reduced androgen levels, aging of multiple body systems, and side-effects of medications. Workup of sexual health problems starts by taking a comprehensive sexual, medical, and psychosocial history, followed by complete physical examination and laboratory evaluation. Clinical management includes measures to preserve and enhance overall health, adjustment of medication regimes to reduce or avoid side-effects, and topical or systemic hormone supplementation with estrogens and/or androgens.
No single therapeutic approach is appropriate for every woman with peri- or postmenopausal sexual dysfunction; instead, treatment should be based on a comprehensive evaluation and consideration of medical and psychosocial contributors to the individual's dysfunction. Further research is required to establish optimal regimens of hormonal and nonhormonal agents, including dosages/dosage forms and duration of treatment, for specific subtypes of sexual dysfunction.
Journal of Sexual Medicine 10/2005; 2 Suppl 3(s3):154-65. DOI:10.1111/j.1743-6109.2005.00131.x · 3.15 Impact Factor
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