Article

Exosomes derived from IL-10-treated dendritic cells can suppress inflammation and collagen-induced arthritis.

Department of Molecular Genetics and Biochemistry, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, PA 15261, USA.
The Journal of Immunology (Impact Factor: 5.36). 06/2005; 174(10):6440-8. DOI: 10.4049/jimmunol.174.10.6440
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT We have demonstrated previously that local, adenoviral-mediated gene transfer of viral IL-10 to a single joint of rabbits and mice with experimental arthritis can suppress disease in both the treated and untreated contralateral joints. This contralateral effect is mediated in part by APCs able to traffic from the treated joint to lymph nodes as well as to untreated joints. Moreover, injection of dendritic cells (DC) genetically modified to express IL-4 or Fas ligand was able to reverse established murine arthritis. To examine the ability of exosomes derived from immunosuppressive DCs to reduce inflammation and autoimmunity, murine models of delayed-type hypersensitivity and collagen-induced arthritis were used. In this study, we demonstrate that periarticular administration of exosomes purified from either bone marrow-derived DCs transduced ex vivo with an adenovirus expressing viral IL-10 or bone marrow-derived DCs treated with recombinant murine IL-10 were able to suppress delayed-type hypersensitivity responses within injected and untreated contralateral joints. In addition, the systemic injection of IL-10-treated DC-derived exosomes was able suppress the onset of murine collagen-induced arthritis as well as reduce severity of established arthritis. Taken together, these data suggest that immature DCs are able to secrete exosomes that are involved in the suppression of inflammatory and autoimmune responses. Thus DC-derived exosomes may represent a novel, cell-free therapy for the treatment of autoimmune diseases.

Download full-text

Full-text

Available from: Rajasree Menon, Dec 17, 2013
0 Followers
 · 
162 Views
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Cell-based therapy, e.g., multipotent mesenchymal stromal cell (MSC) treatment, shows promise for the treatment of various diseases. The strong paracrine capacity of these cells and not their differentiation capacity, is the principal mechanism of therapeutic action. MSCs robustly release exosomes, membrane vesicles (~30-100 nm) originally derived in endosomes as intraluminal vesicles, which contain various molecular constituents including proteins and RNAs from maternal cells. Contained among these constituents, are small non-coding RNA molecules, microRNAs (miRNAs), which play a key role in mediating biological function due to their prominent role in gene regulation. The release as well as the content of the MSC generated exosomes are modified by environmental conditions. Via exosomes, MSCs transfer their therapeutic factors, especially miRNAs, to recipient cells, and therein alter gene expression and thereby promote therapeutic response. The present review focuses on the paracrine mechanism of MSC exosomes, and the regulation and transfer of exosome content, especially the packaging and transfer of miRNAs which enhance tissue repair and functional recovery. Perspectives on the developing role of MSC mediated transfer of exosomes as a therapeutic approach will also be discussed.
    Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience 11/2014; 8:377. DOI:10.3389/fncel.2014.00377 · 4.18 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: In recent years exosomes have emerged as potent stimulators of immune responses and as agents for cancer therapy. Exosomes can carry a broad variety of immunostimulatory molecules depending on the cell of origin and in vitro culture conditions. Dendritic cell-derived exosomes (dexosomes) have been shown to carry NK cell activating ligands and can be loaded with antigen to activate invariant NKT cells and to induce antigen-specific T and B cell responses. Dexosomes have been investigated as therapeutic agents against cancer in two phase I clinical trials, with a phase II clinical trial currently ongoing. Dexosomes were well tolerated but therapeutic success and immune activation were limited. Several reports suggest that multiple factors need to be considered in order to improve exosomal immunogenicity for cancer immunotherapy. These include antigen-loading strategies, exosome composition and exosomal trafficking in vivo. Hence, a better understanding of how to engineer and deliver exosomes to specific cells is crucial to generate strong immune responses and to improve the immunotherapeutic potential of exosomes.
    Seminars in Cancer Biology 05/2014; 28. DOI:10.1016/j.semcancer.2014.05.003 · 9.33 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: In recent years exosomes have emerged as potent stimulators of immune responses and as agents for cancer therapy. Exosomes can carry a broad variety of immunostimulatory molecules depending on the cell of origin and in vitro culture conditions. Dendritic cell-derived exosomes (dexosomes) have been shown to carry NK cell activating ligands and can be loaded with antigen to activate invariant NKT cells and to induce antigen-specific T and B cell responses. Dexosomes have been investigated as therapeutic agents against cancer in two phase I clinical trials, with a phase II clinical trial currently ongoing. Dexosomes were well tolerated but therapeutic success and immune activation were limited. Several reports suggest that multiple factors need to be considered in order to improve exosomal immunogenicity for cancer immunotherapy. These include antigen-loading strategies, exosome composition and exosomal trafficking in vivo. Hence, a better understanding of how to engineer and deliver exosomes to specific cells is crucial to generate strong immune responses and to improve the immunotherapeutic potential of exosomes.
    Seminars in Cancer Biology 01/2014; · 9.33 Impact Factor