Epistaxis: an update on current management.

Department of Otolaryngology and Head and Neck Surgery, St Michael's Hospital, Bristol, UK.
Postgraduate Medical Journal (Impact Factor: 1.61). 06/2005; 81(955):309-14. DOI: 10.1136/pgmj.2004.025007
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Epistaxis is one of the commonest ENT emergencies. Although most patients can be treated within an accident and emergency setting, some are complex and may require specialist intervention. There are multiple risk factors for the development of epistaxis and it can affect any age group, but it is the elderly population with their associated morbidity who often require more intensive treatment and subsequent admission. Treatment strategies have been broadly similar for decades. However, with the evolution of endoscopic technology, new ways of actively managing epistaxis are now available. Recent evidence suggests that this, combined with the use of stepwise management plans, should limit patient complications and the need for admission. This review discusses the various treatment options and integrates the traditional methods with modern techniques.

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    ABSTRACT: Iron deficiency anemia remains a major global health problem. Higher iron demands provide the potential for a targeted preventative approach before anemia develops. The primary study objective was to develop and validate a metric that stratifies recommended dietary iron intake to compensate for patient-specific non-menstrual hemorrhagic losses. The secondary objective was to examine whether iron deficiency can be attributed to under-replacement of epistaxis (nosebleed) hemorrhagic iron losses in hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT). The hemorrhage adjusted iron requirement (HAIR) sums the recommended dietary allowance, and iron required to replace additional quantified hemorrhagic losses, based on the pre-menopausal increment to compensate for menstrual losses (formula provided). In a study population of 50 HHT patients completing concurrent dietary and nosebleed questionnaires, 43/50 (86%) met their recommended dietary allowance, but only 10/50 (20%) met their HAIR. Higher HAIR was a powerful predictor of lower hemoglobin (p = 0.009), lower mean corpuscular hemoglobin content (p<0.001), lower log-transformed serum iron (p = 0.009), and higher log-transformed red cell distribution width (p<0.001). There was no evidence of generalised abnormalities in iron handling Ferritin and ferritin(2) explained 60% of the hepcidin variance (p<0.001), and the mean hepcidinferritin ratio was similar to reported controls. Iron supplement use increased the proportion of individuals meeting their HAIR, and blunted associations between HAIR and hematinic indices. Once adjusted for supplement use however, reciprocal relationships between HAIR and hemoglobin/serum iron persisted. Of 568 individuals using iron tablets, most reported problems completing the course. For patients with hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia, persistent anemia was reported three-times more frequently if iron tablets caused diarrhea or needed to be stopped. HAIR values, providing an indication of individuals' iron requirements, may be a useful tool in prevention, assessment and management of iron deficiency. Iron deficiency in HHT can be explained by under-replacement of nosebleed hemorrhagic iron losses.
    PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(10):e76516. · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    Annals of medical and health sciences research. 07/2014; 4(Suppl 2):S165-6.
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    ABSTRACT: Epistaxis is most commonly an easily treated ENT entity with a relatively simple algorithm. Occasionally, however, it is encountered as a devastating disease process that can humble the otolaryngologist. In the setting of comorbidities that exacerbate bleeding, in this case vasculitis due to systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), epistaxis can be life-threatening and refractory to conservative management. This case report describes the hospital course of a patient with severe SLE and intractable epistaxis. We discuss classic management options for epistaxis and offer a novel treatment option for patients with SLE-related vasculitides-goal-directed medical therapy with high-dose intravenous pulse steroid therapy. To our knowledge, this report not only is the first description of targeted treatment options for intractable epistaxis in patients with SLE, but also serves to augment the traditional algorithm with the addition of a goal-directed medical therapy-control of epistaxis through high-dose intravenous pulse steroid therapy. We demonstrated that 6mg of intravenous dexamethasone given every 6hours can be highly effective in controlling epistaxis in patients with uncontrolled SLE. The presumed mechanism is through control of associated vasculitides.
    American journal of otolaryngology 12/2013; · 0.77 Impact Factor

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