Epistaxis: an update on current management.

Department of Otolaryngology and Head and Neck Surgery, St Michael's Hospital, Bristol, UK.
Postgraduate Medical Journal (Impact Factor: 1.61). 06/2005; 81(955):309-14. DOI: 10.1136/pgmj.2004.025007
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Epistaxis is one of the commonest ENT emergencies. Although most patients can be treated within an accident and emergency setting, some are complex and may require specialist intervention. There are multiple risk factors for the development of epistaxis and it can affect any age group, but it is the elderly population with their associated morbidity who often require more intensive treatment and subsequent admission. Treatment strategies have been broadly similar for decades. However, with the evolution of endoscopic technology, new ways of actively managing epistaxis are now available. Recent evidence suggests that this, combined with the use of stepwise management plans, should limit patient complications and the need for admission. This review discusses the various treatment options and integrates the traditional methods with modern techniques.

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    ABSTRACT: A retrospective study of risk factors for recurrent epistaxis and initial treatment for refractory posterior bleeding was performed. Based on the results, proposals for appropriate initial treatment for epistaxis by otolaryngologists are presented. The data of 299 patients with idiopathic epistaxis treated during 2008-2009 were analyzed by multivariate logistic regression analysis. Treatment data for 101 cases of posterior bleeding were analyzed using the chi-square test. Recurrent epistaxis occurred in 32 cases (10.7%). Unidentified bleeding point (adjusted odds ratio (OR) 5.67, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.83-17.55, p=0.003) was predictive of an increased risk of recurrent epistaxis, and electrocautery (adjusted odds ratio (OR) 0.07, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.03-0.17, p=0.000) was predictive of a decreased risk of recurrent epistaxis. In terms of initial treatment for posterior bleeding, the rate of recurrent epistaxis was significantly lower for patients who underwent electrocautery as initial treatment compared with those who did not (6.4% vs. 40.7%, p<0.01), and it was significantly higher for those who underwent endoscopic gauze packing compared with those who did not (39.5% vs. 15.9%, p<0.01). In the present study, the risk factors for recurrent epistaxis were unidentified bleeding point. Thus, it is important to identify and cauterize a bleeding point to prevent recurrent epistaxis. The present results also suggest the effectiveness of electrocautery and the higher rate of recurrent epistaxis for patients who underwent gauze packing as initial treatment for posterior bleeding. Electrocautery should be the first-choice treatment of otolaryngologists for all bleeding points of epistaxis, and painful gauze packing may be inadvisable for posterior bleeding. More cases of posterior bleeding are needed for future studies involving multivariate analyses and appropriate analyses of factors related to hospitalization, surgery, and embolization.
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    ABSTRACT: Epistaxis is frequently managed both by patients in the community and by health professionals. Many methods have been described in the literature about how to manage this condition. Epistaxis is usually due to anterior circulation bleeding at an area known as Kiesselbach's plexus (Little's area). Five vessels supply Little's area; one of these, the septal branch of the superior labial artery, can be compressed via an easy and novel technique, sub-labial packing. Sub-labial packing is a technique proposed as an adjunct to the standard 15min ala nasi compression as a simple yet effective technique to stop epistaxis. We hereby report two cases of managing epistaxis from Little's area using sub-labial packing.
    International journal of pediatric otorhinolaryngology 06/2013; · 0.85 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Epistaxis is most commonly an easily treated ENT entity with a relatively simple algorithm. Occasionally, however, it is encountered as a devastating disease process that can humble the otolaryngologist. In the setting of comorbidities that exacerbate bleeding, in this case vasculitis due to systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), epistaxis can be life-threatening and refractory to conservative management. This case report describes the hospital course of a patient with severe SLE and intractable epistaxis. We discuss classic management options for epistaxis and offer a novel treatment option for patients with SLE-related vasculitides-goal-directed medical therapy with high-dose intravenous pulse steroid therapy. To our knowledge, this report not only is the first description of targeted treatment options for intractable epistaxis in patients with SLE, but also serves to augment the traditional algorithm with the addition of a goal-directed medical therapy-control of epistaxis through high-dose intravenous pulse steroid therapy. We demonstrated that 6mg of intravenous dexamethasone given every 6hours can be highly effective in controlling epistaxis in patients with uncontrolled SLE. The presumed mechanism is through control of associated vasculitides.
    American journal of otolaryngology 12/2013; · 0.77 Impact Factor

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