The phosphatidyl-inositol 3 kinase (PI3k)/Akt pathway has been implicated in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Because rapamycin suppresses the oncogenic processes sustained by PI3k/Akt, we investigated whether rapamycin affects blast survival. We found that rapamycin induces apoptosis of blasts in 56% of the bone marrow samples analyzed. Using the PI3k inhibitor wortmannin, we show that the PI3k/Akt pathway is involved in blast survival. Moreover, rapamycin increased doxorubicin-induced apoptosis even in nonresponder samples. Anthracyclines activate nuclear factor kappaB (NF-kappaB), and disruption of this signaling pathway increases the efficacy of apoptogenic stimuli. Rapamycin inhibited doxorubicin-induced NF-kappaB in ALL samples. Using a short interfering (si) RNA approach, we demonstrate that FKBP51, a large immunophilin inhibited by rapamycin, is essential for drug-induced NF-kappaB activation in human leukemia. Furthermore, rapamycin did not increase doxorubicin-induced apoptosis when NF-kappaB was overexpressed. In conclusion, rapamycin targets 2 pathways that are crucial for cell survival and chemoresistance of malignant lymphoblasts--PI3k/Akt through the mammalian target of rapamycin and NF-kappaB through FKBP51--suggesting that the drug could be beneficial in the treatment of childhood ALL.
"The decrease in the MMP in the cell is considered as one of the principal features to demonstrate the induction of the basic apoptotic pathway. So, to know the effect of Dt–Dd–PLGA–MNPs on the cells that confer the apoptotic pathway, a mitochondrial membrane depolarization study was done in both MCF7 and G1 cell lines by using cationic JC-1.56 The study of the loss of MMP by Dt–Dd–PLGA– MNPs in MCF7 and G1 cells was analyzed by confocal imaging (Figure 10). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The efficient targeting and therapeutic efficacy of a combination of drugs (curcumin and 5-Fluorouracil [5FU]) and magnetic nanoparticles encapsulated poly(D,L-lactic-co-glycolic acid) nanoparticles, functionalized with two cancer-specific ligands are discussed in our work. This multifunctional, highly specific nanoconjugate resulted in the superior uptake of nanoparticles by cancer cells. Upon magnetic hyperthermia, we could harness the advantages of incorporating magnetic nanoparticles that synergistically acted with the drugs to destroy cancer cells within a very short period of time. The remarkable multimodal efficacy attained by this therapeutic nanoformulation offers the potential for targeting, imaging, and treatment of cancer within a short period of time (120 minutes) by initiating early and late apoptosis.
International Journal of Nanomedicine 01/2014; 9(1):437-459. DOI:10.2147/IJN.S49882 · 4.38 Impact Factor
"Immunoblotting and immunolabeling were performed as described , . The following antibodies were used: anti-flag M2-peroxidase and anti-β-tubulin mouse monoclonal antibodies (1∶1000 and 1∶250; Sigma); anti-Fak mouse monoclonal antibody (1∶100; Cell Signaling); rhodamine-phalloidin (1∶1000; Sigma); anti-Flag rabbit polyclonal antibody (1∶500; Sigma). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Loss of cell adhesion and enhancement of cell motility contribute to epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition during development. These processes are related to a) rearrangement of cell-cell and cell-substrate adhesion molecules; b) cross talk between extra-cellular matrix and internal cytoskeleton through focal adhesion molecules. Focal adhesions are stringently regulated transient structures implicated in cell adhesion, spreading and motility during tissue development. Importantly, despite the extensive elucidation of the molecular composition of focal adhesions, the complex regulation of their dynamics is largely unclear. Here, we demonstrate, using live-imaging in medaka, that the microRNA miR-204 promotes both mesenchymal neural crest and lens cell migration and elongation. Overexpression of miR-204 results in upregulated cell motility, while morpholino-mediated ablation of miR-204 activity causes abnormal lens morphogenesis and neural crest cell mislocalization. Using a variety of in vivo and in vitro approaches, we demonstrate that these actions are mediated by the direct targeting of the Ankrd13A gene, which in turn controls focal cell adhesion formation and distribution. Significantly, in vivo restoration of abnormally elevated levels of Ankrd13A resulting from miR-204 inactivation rescued the aberrant lens phenotype in medaka fish. These data uncover, for the first time in vivo, the role of a microRNA in developmental control of mesenchymal cell migration and highlight miR-204 as a "master regulator" of the molecular networks that regulate lens morphogenesis in vertebrates.
PLoS ONE 04/2013; 8(4):e61099. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0061099 · 3.23 Impact Factor
"The third therapeutic approach is the inhibition of oncogenic PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway. The PI3K/AKT pathway was found high-frequency abnormalities in T-ALL (59), and mTOR inhibitor rapamycin showed promising effects in preclinical models and Jurkat cell line (68,69). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) is an aggressive hematological malignancy. The understanding of its gene expression regulation and molecular mechanisms still remains elusive. Started from experimentally verified T-ALL-related miRNAs and genes, we obtained 120 feed-forward loops (FFLs) among T-ALL-related genes, miRNAs and TFs through combining target prediction. Afterwards, a T-ALL miRNA and TF co-regulatory network was constructed, and its significance was tested by statistical methods. Four miRNAs in the miR-17-92 cluster and four important genes (CYLD, HOXA9, BCL2L11 and RUNX1) were found as hubs in the network. Particularly, we found that miR-19 was highly expressed in T-ALL patients and cell lines. Ectopic expression of miR-19 represses CYLD expression, while miR-19 inhibitor treatment induces CYLD protein expression and decreases NF-κB expression in the downstream signaling pathway. Thus, miR-19, CYLD and NF-κB form a regulatory FFL, which provides new clues for sustained activation of NF-κB in T-ALL. Taken together, we provided the first miRNA-TF co-regulatory network in T-ALL and proposed a model to demonstrate the roles of miR-19 and CYLD in the T-cell leukemogenesis. This study may provide potential therapeutic targets for T-ALL and shed light on combining bioinformatics with experiments in the research of complex diseases.
Nucleic Acids Research 02/2012; 40(12):5201-14. DOI:10.1093/nar/gks175 · 9.11 Impact Factor
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