Standardized full-field electroretinography in rabbits.
ABSTRACT We present a procedure for full-field ERG recording in rabbits, based on the human ERG standards published by the International Society for Clinical Electrophysiology of Vision (ISCEV). Following initial pilot experiments, six animals aged 3 months and 11 animals between 1 and 2 years were investigated. All animals displayed well detectable and reproducible separate cone and rod responses under appropriate stimulus conditions. The b-wave was smaller in young animals than in old, but there were no similar differences in the b-wave implicit times. The animals had to be lightly sedated, which was shown to have no adverse effects on the recordings. Standard deviations of normalized adult rabbit recordings were comparable to human recordings. The measurements were less precise in young animals. We suggest that our procedure is well suited for further scientific studies in this animal model.
SourceAvailable from: Daniel Palanker[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: A major obstacle in applying gene therapy to clinical practice is the lack of efficient and safe gene delivery techniques. Viral delivery has encountered a number of serious problems including immunological reactions and malignancy. Non-viral delivery methods (liposomes, sonoporation and electroporation) have either low efficiency in-vivo or produce severe collateral damage to ocular tissues. We discovered that tensile stress greatly increases the susceptibility of cellular membranes to electroporation. For synchronous application of electric field and mechanical stress, both are generated by the electric discharge itself. A pressure wave is produced by rapid vaporization of the medium. To prevent termination of electric current by the vapor cavity it is ionized thus restoring its electric conductivity. For in-vivo experiments with rabbits a plasmid DNA was injected into the subretinal space, and RPE was treated trans-sclerally with an array of microelectodes placed outside the eye. Application of 250-300V and 100-200 mus biphasic pulses via a microelectrode array resulted in efficient transfection of RPE without visible damage to the retina. Gene expression was quantified and monitored using bioluminescence (luciferase) and fluorescence (GFP) imaging. Transfection efficiency of RPE with this new technique exceeded that of standard electroporation by a factor 10,000. Safe and effective non-viral DNA delivery to the mammalian retina may help to materialize the enormous potential of the ocular gene therapy. Future experiments will focus on continued characterization of the safety and efficacy of this method and evaluation of long-term transgene expression in the presence of phiC31 integrase.Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering 03/2006; DOI:10.1117/12.649624 · 0.20 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The flash electroretinography is a standard electrophysiological method and widely employed in basic research and ophthalmology clinics, of which the stimulus is usually white flash from dome stimulator. However, little is known about the electroretinograms (ERGs) evoked by monochromatic laser flash stimuli. The goal of this research effort is to quantify the ERGs of dark-adapted New Zealand rabbits elicited by He-Ne laser flash with wavelength 632.8 nm. The flash field was a Maxwellian viewing disc with angular subtense of 8.5°, 13.3° or 20.2°. The stimulus duration was 12 ms, 22 ms, 70 ms or 220 ms. The laser flash power incident on the cornea varied from 2.2 nW through 22 mW. Under the condition of 20 ms stimulus duration and 20.2° flash field, the ERG of New Zealand rabbit was compared with that of Chinchilla gray rabbit. Results showed that for the ERG b-wave, with the increase of laser energy, the amplitude first increased, then met a trough and finally increased again, the implicit time decreased first and then met a platform. While for the ERG a-wave, the amplitude increased and the implicit time decreased monotonically. Longer stimulus duration led to lower b-wave amplitude under equal flash power level. The flash field size showed limited effect on the ERG, especially on the low energy end. As compared with the pigmented rabbit, the albino rabbit was more sensitive and the threshold energy for b-wave excitation was about 10 times lower.Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering 12/2012; DOI:10.1117/12.999975 · 0.20 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Abstract Aim: To study the effects of the tumor necrosis factor alpha inhibitor adalimumab on rabbit retina after injection into the vitreous body. Methods: Forty-eight rabbits of mixed strain (9-12 months old, weighing ≈ 3.5 kg) were randomized into four groups. Adalimumab was injected at one of two concentrations (1.25 mg or 2.5 mg) into the eyes of two groups, and balanced salt solution into the eyes of the third group. The fourth group acted as controls. Full-field electroretinography (ffERG) was performed before injection and 1 and 6 weeks post-injection. At 6 weeks post-injection the rabbits were euthanized and the sectioned retinas were studied. Retinal histology was studied with hematoxylin-eosin staining. Immunohistochemical analysis was performed on rods, cones, rod bipolar cells, horizontal cells, amacrine cells and Müller cells. Results: No significant difference in ffERG amplitudes or implicit times was observed between the four groups at any time point. Histological and immunohistochemical findings were similar in all groups. Conclusions: Injection of adalimumab into the vitreous body of healthy rabbits, at doses up to 2.5 mg, does not appear to be toxic to the rabbit retina.Current Eye Research 06/2014; DOI:10.3109/02713683.2014.898309 · 1.66 Impact Factor