Levey, A. S. et al. Definition and classification of chronic kidney disease: a position statement from Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO). Kidney Int. 67, 2089-2100

University of Groningen, Groningen, Groningen, Netherlands
Kidney International (Impact Factor: 8.56). 07/2005; 67(6):2089-100. DOI: 10.1111/j.1523-1755.2005.00365.x
Source: PubMed


Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a worldwide public health problem, with adverse outcomes of kidney failure, cardiovascular disease (CVD), and premature death. A simple definition and classification of kidney disease is necessary for international development and implementation of clinical practice guidelines. Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) conducted a survey and sponsored a controversies conference to (1) provide a clear understanding to both the nephrology and nonnephrology communities of the evidence base for the definition and classification recommended by Kidney Disease Quality Outcome Initiative (K/DOQI), (2) develop global consensus for the adoption of a simple definition and classification system, and (3) identify a collaborative research agenda and plan that would improve the evidence base and facilitate implementation of the definition and classification of CKD. The K/DOQI definition and classification were accepted, with clarifications. CKD is defined as kidney damage or glomerular filtration rate (GFR) <60 mL/min/1.73 m(2) for 3 months or more, irrespective of cause. Kidney damage in many kidney diseases can be ascertained by the presence of albuminuria, defined as albumin-to-creatinine ratio >30 mg/g in two of three spot urine specimens. GFR can be estimated from calibrated serum creatinine and estimating equations, such as the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) Study equation or the Cockcroft-Gault formula. Kidney disease severity is classified into five stages according to the level of GFR. Kidney disease treatment by dialysis and transplantation should be noted. Simple, uniform classifications of CKD by cause and by risks for kidney disease progression and CVD should be developed.

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    • "m 2 for at least 3 months, irrespective of the cause [1]. The definition of CKD underwent minor modifications in 2004 and now includes classification based on dialysis treatment or transplantation to denote the special care required for these groups of patients [2]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Chronic kidney disease and upper tract urothelial carcinomas display a bidirectional relationship. Review of the literature indicates that early diagnosis and correct localization of upper tract urothelial carcinomas in dialysis patients and kidney transplant recipients are important but problematic. Urine cytology and cystoscopy have limited sensitivity for the diagnosis of upper tract urothelial carcinomas in dialysis patients. Enhanced computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging could prove useful for the detection and staging of upper tract urothelial carcinomas in dialysis patients. Renal ultrasound can detect hydronephrosis caused by upper tract urothelial carcinomas in kidney transplant recipients but cannot visualize the carcinomas themselves. High detection rates for upper tract urothelial carcinomas in kidney transplant recipients have recently been demonstrated using computed tomography urography, which appears to be a promising tool. To detect carcinomas in dialysis patients and kidney transplant recipients as early as possible, regular screening in asymptomatic patients and diagnostic work-up in symptomatic patients should be performed using a combination of urological and imaging methods. Careful assessment of subsequent recurrence within the contralateral upper urinary tract and the urinary bladder is necessary for dialysis patients and kidney transplant recipients with upper tract urothelial carcinomas.
    BioMed Research International 08/2014; 2014:989458. DOI:10.1155/2014/989458 · 3.17 Impact Factor
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    • "CKD was conceptualized as consisting of five stages following the Kidney Disease Outcomes Quality Initiative’s definition accepted during the Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) conference [44]. The definition accepted during the KDIGO conference suggests that CKD could also be classified by treatment type: kidney transplant recipient, CKD independent of dialysis and CKD on dialysis. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background Chronic diseases, such as chronic kidney disease (CKD), are growing in incidence and prevalence, in part due to an aging population. Support provided through home care services may be useful in attaining a more efficient and higher quality care for CKD patients. Methods A systematic review was performed to identify studies examining home care interventions among adult CKD patients incorporating all outcomes. Studies examining home care services as an alternative to acute, post-acute or hospice care and those for long-term maintenance in patients’ homes were included. Studies with only a home training intervention and those without an applied research component were excluded. Results Seventeen studies (10 cohort, 4 non-comparative, 2 cross-sectional, 1 randomized) examined the support provided by home care services in 15,058 CKD patients. Fourteen studies included peritoneal dialysis (PD), two incorporated hemodialysis (HD) and one included both PD and HD patients in their treatment groups. Sixteen studies focused on the dialysis phase of care in their study samples and one study included information from both the dialysis and pre-dialysis phases of care. Study settings included nine single hospital/dialysis centers and three regional/metropolitan areas and five were at the national level. Studies primarily focused on nurse assisted home care patients and mostly examined PD related clinical outcomes. In PD studies with comparators, peritonitis risks and technique survival rates were similar across home care assisted patients and comparators. The risk of mortality, however, was higher for home care assisted PD patients. While most studies adjusted for age and comorbidities, information about multidimensional prognostic indices that take into account physical, psychological, cognitive, functional and social factors among CKD patients was not easily available. Conclusions Most studies focused on nurse assisted home care patients on dialysis. The majority were single site studies incorporating small patient populations. There are gaps in the literature regarding the utility of providing home care to CKD patients and the impact this has on healthcare resources.
    BMC Nephrology 07/2014; 15(1):118. DOI:10.1186/1471-2369-15-118 · 1.69 Impact Factor
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    • "In accordance with the National Kidney Foundation guidelines for CKD, CKD was defined as an eGFR <60 mL/min/1.73 m2 (≥stage 3) [10,11]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose To compare the outcomes of nephron-sparing options (e.g., partial nephrectomy [PN]) and low-surgical-morbidity options (e.g., radical nephrectomy [RN]) in elderly patients with limited life expectancy. Materials and Methods We retrospectively reviewed 135 patients aged 70 years or older who underwent RN (n=82) or PN (n=53) for clinical T1 stage renal masses between January 2000 and December 2012. Clinicopathologic data were thoroughly analyzed and compared between the RN and PN groups. The modification of diet in renal disease equation was used to estimate glomerular filtration. Overall survival and cardiac events were assessed by using Kaplan-Meier survival analysis and Cox proportional-hazards regression modeling. Results Over a median follow-up period of 59.72 months, 17 patients (20.7%) in the RN group and 3 patients (5.7%) in the PN group died. Chronic kidney disease (<60 mL/min/1.73 m2) developed more frequently in RN patients than in PN patients (75.6% vs. 41.5%, p<0.001). The 5-year overall survival rate did not differ significantly between the RN and PN groups (90.7% vs. 93.8%; p=0.158). According to the multivariate analysis, the Charlson comorbidity index score was an independent predictor of overall survival (hazard ratio [HR], 2.679, p=0.037). Type of nephrectomy was not significantly associated with overall survival (HR, 2.447; p=0.167) or cardiac events (HR, 1.147; p=0.718). Conclusions Although chronic kidney disease was lower after PN, overall survival and cardiac events were similar regardless of type of nephrectomy.
    Korean journal of urology 07/2014; 55(7):446-52. DOI:10.4111/kju.2014.55.7.446
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