Alternative Gnas gene products have opposite effects on glucose and lipid metabolism.

Metabolic Diseases Branch, National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (Impact Factor: 9.81). 06/2005; 102(20):7386-91. DOI: 10.1073/pnas.0408268102
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Gnas is an imprinted gene with multiple gene products resulting from alternative splicing of different first exons onto a common exon 2. These products include stimulatory G protein alpha-subunit (G(s)alpha), the G protein required for receptor-stimulated cAMP production; extralarge G(s)alpha (XLalphas), a paternally expressed G(s)alpha isoform; and neuroendocrine-specific protein (NESP55), a maternally expressed chromogranin-like protein. G(s)alpha undergoes tissue-specific imprinting, being expressed primarily from the maternal allele in certain tissues. Heterozygous mutation of exon 2 on the maternal (E2m-/+) or paternal (E2+/p-) allele results in opposite effects on energy metabolism. E2m-/+ mice are obese and hypometabolic, whereas E2+/p- mice are lean and hypermetabolic. We now studied the effects of G(s)alpha deficiency without disrupting other Gnas gene products by deleting G(s)alpha exon 1 (E1). E1+/p- mice lacked the E2+/p- phenotype and developed obesity and insulin resistance. The lean, hypermetabolic, and insulin-sensitive E2+/p- phenotype appears to result from XLalphas deficiency, whereas loss of paternal-specific G(s)alpha expression in E1+/p- mice leads to an opposite metabolic phenotype. Thus, alternative Gnas gene products have opposing effects on glucose and lipid metabolism. Like E2m-/+ mice, E1m-/+ mice had s.c. edema at birth, presumably due to loss of maternal G(s)alpha expression. However, E1m-/+ mice differed from E2m-/+ mice in other respects, raising the possibility for the presence of other maternal-specific gene products. E1m-/+ mice had more severe obesity and insulin resistance and lower metabolic rate relative to E1+/p- mice. Differences between E1m-/+ and E1+/p- mice presumably result from differential effects on G(s)alpha expression in tissues where G(s)alpha is normally imprinted.

Download full-text


Available from: Min Chen, Jun 30, 2015
1 Follower
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Genes subjected to genomic imprinting are often associated with prenatal and postnatal growth. Furthermore, it has been observed that maternally silenced/paternally expressed genes tend to favour offspring growth, whilst paternally silenced/maternally expressed genes will restrict growth. One imprinted cluster in which this has been shown to hold true is the Gnas cluster; of the three proteins expressed from this cluster, two, Gsα and XLαs, have been found to affect postnatal growth in a number of different mouse models. The remaining protein in this cluster, NESP55, has not yet been shown to be involved in growth. We previously described a new mutation, Ex1A-T, which upon paternal transmission resulted in postnatal growth retardation due to loss of imprinting of Gsα and loss of expression of the paternally expressed XLαs. Here we describe maternal inheritance of Ex1A-T which gives rise to a small but highly significant overgrowth phenotype which we attribute to reduction of maternally expressed NESP55.
    Mammalian Genome 07/2013; 24(7-8). DOI:10.1007/s00335-013-9462-2 · 2.88 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: G(s)α is a ubiquitously expressed G protein α-subunit that couples receptors to the generation of intracellular cyclic AMP. The G(s)α gene GNAS is a complex gene that undergoes genomic imprinting, an epigenetic phenomenon that leads to differential expression from the two parental alleles. G(s)α is imprinted in a tissue-specific manner, being expressed primarily from the maternal allele in a small number of tissues. Albright hereditary osteodystrophy is a monogenic obesity disorder caused by heterozygous G(s)α mutations but only when the mutations are maternally inherited. Studies in mice indicate a similar parent-of-origin effect on energy and glucose metabolism, with maternal but not paternal mutations leading to obesity, reduced sympathetic nerve activity and energy expenditure, glucose intolerance and insulin resistance, with no primary effect on food intake. These effects result from G(s)α imprinting leading to severe G(s)α deficiency in one or more regions of the central nervous system, and are associated with a specific defect in melanocortins to stimulate sympathetic nerve activity and energy expenditure.
    European journal of pharmacology 06/2011; 660(1):119-24. DOI:10.1016/j.ejphar.2010.10.105 · 2.68 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: In this review, I describe how evolutionary genomics is uniquely suited to spearhead advances in understanding human disease risk, owing to the privileged position of genes as fundamental causes of phenotypic variation, and the ability of population genetic and phylogenetic methods to robustly infer processes of natural selection, drift, and mutation from genetic variation at the levels of family, population, species, and clade. I first provide an overview of models for the origins and maintenance of genetically based disease risk in humans. I then discuss how analyses of genetic disease risk can be dovetailed with studies of positive and balancing selection, to evaluate the degree to which the ‘genes that make us human’ also represent the genes that mediate risk of polygenic disease. Finally, I present four basic principles for the nascent field of human evolutionary medical genomics, each of which represents a process that is nonintuitive from a proximate perspective. Joint consideration of these principles compels novel forms of interdisciplinary analyses, most notably studies that (i) analyze tradeoffs at the level of molecular genetics, and (ii) identify genetic variants that are derived in the human lineage or in specific populations, and then compare individuals with derived versus ancestral alleles.
    Evolutionary Applications 02/2011; 4(2):292 - 314. DOI:10.1111/j.1752-4571.2010.00156.x · 4.57 Impact Factor