The EVIDENCE (Evidence of Interferon Dose-Response: European North American Comparative Efficacy) Study demonstrated that patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) who initiate interferon beta-1a therapy with 44 microg 3 times weekly (TIW) were less likely to have a relapse or activity on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) compared with those who initiate therapy at a dosage of 30 microg 1 time weekly (QW).
To determine the effect of changing the dosage from 30 microg QW to 44 microg TIW in this extension of the EVIDENCE Study.
Patients with relapsing MS originally randomized to interferon beta-1a, 30 microg QW, during the comparative phase of the study changed to 44 microg TIW, whereas patients originally randomized to 44 microg TIW continued that regimen. Patients were followed up, on average, for an additional 32 weeks.
The within-patient pretransition to post-transition change in relapse rate.
At the transition visit, 223 (73%) of 306 patients receiving 30 microg QW converted to 44 microg TIW, and 272 (91%) of 299 receiving 44-microg TIW continued the same therapy. The post-transition annualized relapse rate decreased from 0.64 to 0.32 for patients increasing the dose (P<.001) and from 0.46 to 0.34 for patients continuing 44-microg TIW (P = .03). The change was greater in those increasing dose and frequency (P = .047). Patients converting to the 44-mug TIW regimen had fewer active lesions on T2-weighted MRI compared with before the transition (P = .02), whereas those continuing the 44-microg TIW regimen had no significant change in T2 active lesions. Patients who converted to high-dose/high-frequency interferon beta-1a therapy had increased rates of adverse events and treatment terminations consistent with the initiation of high-dose subcutaneous interferon therapy.
Patients receiving interferon beta-1a improved on clinical and MRI disease measures when they changed from 30 microg QW to 44 microg TIW.
"No change in FLS during the study would have been expected in patients receiving pre-study sc IFN β. FLS may have worsened in some patients previously receiving im IFN β-1a owing to increased IFN dose and injection frequency ; however, increased injection frequency may favour tachyphylaxis, therefore reducing the presence and severity of FLS (authors' personal observations) . Indeed, fewer FLS were consistently reported as the second most important benefit of the autoinjection device by patients receiving pre-study im IFN β-1a at Weeks 4, 8 and 12. Patients switching from GA would have been unaccustomed to FLS, which are particularly prevalent in the first few weeks of treatment with IFN β [8,32] and occur most frequently for the first 6 months. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Achieving good adherence to self-injected treatments for multiple sclerosis can be difficult. Injection devices may help to overcome some of the injection-related barriers to adherence that can be experienced by patients. We sought to assess short-term adherence to, and tolerability of, interferon (IFN) β-1a administered via electronic autoinjection device in patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS).
BRIDGE (RebiSmart to self-inject Rebif serum-free formulation in a multidose cartridge) was a 12-week, multicentre, open-label, single-arm, observational, Phase IV study in which patients self-administered IFN β-1a (titrated to 44 μg), subcutaneously (sc), three times weekly, via electronic autoinjection device. Patients were assessed at baseline and 4-weekly intervals to Week 12 or early termination (ET) for: physical examinations; diary card completion (baseline, Weeks 4, 8 only); neurological examinations (baseline, Week 12/ET only); MS Treatment Concern Questionnaire (MSTCQ; Weeks 4, 8, 12 only); Convenience Questionnaire (Week 12 only); Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS); and Paced Auditory Serial Addition Task (PASAT; baseline only). Adherence was defined as administration of ≥ 80% of scheduled injections, recorded by the autoinjection device.
Overall, 88.2% (105/119; intent-to-treat population) of patients were adherent; 67.2% (80/119) administered all scheduled injections. Medical reasons accounted for 35.6% (31/87) of missed injections, forgetfulness for 20.6% (18/87). Adherence did not correlate with baseline Expanded Disability Status Scale (P = 0.821) or PASAT (P = 0.952) scores, or pre-study therapy (P = 0.303). No significant changes (baseline-Week 12) in mean HADS depression (P = 0.482) or anxiety (P = 0.156) scores were observed. 'Overall convenience' was the most important reported benefit of the autoinjection device. Device features associated with handling and ease of use were highly rated. Mean MSTCQ scores for 'flu-like' symptoms (P = 0.022) and global side effects (P = 0.002) significantly improved from Week 4-12. Mean MSTCQ scores for pain at injection site and injection pain increased from Week 4-12 (P < 0.001). Adverse events were mild/moderate. No new safety signals were identified.
Convenience and ease of use of the autoinjection device may improve adherence and, therefore, outcomes, in patients with RRMS receiving sc IFN β-1a.
EU Clinical Trials Register (EU-CTR; http://www.clinicaltrialsregister.eu): 2009-013333-24.
"(INCOMIN and EVIDENCE, respectively) provided evidences that naive patients started with the high-dose IFNB had a better outcome than those receiving a low dose regimen [14,15]. It has also been suggested that increasing the IFNB dose may be useful in reducing mean relapse rate and the accumulation of subclinical lesions as detected on MRI [16,17]. However, these studies have not investigated whether the criteria adopted to switch patients to the high-dose IFNB could have an influence on the clinical outcomes. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In daily clinical setting, some patients affected by relapsing-remitting Multiple Sclerosis (RRMS) are switched from the low-dose to the high-dose Interferon beta (IFNB) in order to achieve a better control of the disease.
In this observational, post-marketing study we reported the 2-year clinical outcomes of patients switched to the high-dose IFNB; we also evaluated whether different criteria adopted to switch patients had an influence on the clinical outcomes.
Patients affected by RRMS and switched from the low-dose to the high-dose IFNB due to the occurrence of relapses, or contrast-enhancing lesions (CELs) as detected by yearly scheduled MRI scans, were followed for two years. Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) scores, as well as clinical relapses, were evaluated during the follow-up period.
We identified 121 patients switched to the high-dose IFNB. One hundred patients increased the IFNB dose because of the occurrence of one or more relapses, and 21 because of the presence of one or more CELs, even in absence of clinical relapses. At the end of the 2-year follow-up, 72 (59.5%) patients had a relapse, and 51 (42.1%) reached a sustained progression on EDSS score. Overall, 85 (70.3%) patients showed some clinical disease activity (i.e. relapses or disability progression) after the switch. Relapse risk after increasing the IFNB dose was greater in patients who switched because of relapses than those switched only for MRI activity (HR: 5.55, p = 0.001). A high EDSS score (HR: 1.77, p < 0.001) and the combination of clinical and MRI activity at switch raised the risk of sustained disability progression after increasing the IFNB dose (HR: 2.14, p = 0.01).
In the majority of MS patients, switching from the low-dose to the high-dose IFNB did not reduce the risk of further relapses or increased disability in the 2-year follow period.Although we observed that patients who switched only on the basis on MRI activity (even in absence of clinical attacks) had a lower risk of further relapses, larger studies are warranted before to recommend a switch algorithm based on MRI findings.
"Progression of MS can be slowed by early treatment with disease-modifying drugs (DMDs) [Tintore, 2007; Kappos et al. 2006; PRISMS Study Group and University of British Columbia MS/MRI Analysis Group, 2001]. In particular, there is compelling evidence to support the use of high-dose, high-frequency interferon (IFN) beta-1a, administered subcutaneously (sc) [Kappos et al. 2006; Panitch et al. 2005, 2002; Schwid et al. 2005], which has been shown to provide an effective treatment option for relapsingremitting MS (RRMS), to have a well-established long-term safety and tolerability profile [Kappos et al. 2006; PRISMS Study Group and University of British Columbia MS/MRI Analysis Group, 2001; PRISMS Study Group, 1998], and to be associated with a favourable benefit-to-risk profile [Freedman et al. 2008; Goodin et al. 2007]. However, long-term administration of injectable DMDs may be burdensome and lead to suboptimal treatment adherence. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective: To explore the effects of exposure to subcutaneous (sc) interferon (IFN) beta-1a on efficacy in patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) enrolled in the PRISMS (Prevention of Relapses and disability by Interferon beta-1a Subcutaneously in Multiple Sclerosis) study.Methods: Patients with RRMS received IFN beta-1a, 44 or 22 µg sc three times weekly (tiw), or placebo, for 2 years, at which point placebo recipients were re-randomized to IFN beta-1a, 44 or 22 µg sc tiw, for a further 2-4 years. Long-term follow-up visits occurred 7-8 years after enrolment and allowed participation of patients who had previously discontinued treatment. Post hoc descriptive analyses were conducted within the lower (MIN) and upper (MAX) quartiles of patients divided according to cumulative dose of IFN beta-1a and cumulative time on treatment. Outcomes were explored in patients initially randomized to IFN beta-1a, 44 µg sc tiw, who had received continuous or noncontinuous therapy during the study.Results: For both cumulative dose and time analyses, the MIN and MAX groups comprised 96 and 95 patients, respectively. The continuous and noncontinuous groups included 45 and 91 patients, respectively. The MAX DOSE and MAX TIME groups had lower annualized relapse rates, lower rates of conversion to secondary progressive MS, lower percentages of patients with Expanded Disability Status Scale progression, higher percentages of relapse-free patients, and less T2 burden of disease than the MIN groups. The continuous therapy group had a lower annualized relapse rate and lower percentages of patients with Expanded Disability Status Scale progression or conversion to secondary progressive MS than the noncontinuous therapy group.Conclusions: The findings of these post hoc analyses suggest that high exposure to sc IFN beta-1a may be associated with better clinical outcomes than low exposure, and also highlight the importance of maximizing adherence. Additional prospective investigation is warranted to evaluate further the effects of treatment exposure on outcomes and to determine the benefits of interventions to improve adherence.
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