A prospective study of physical activity and incident and fatal prostate cancer
ABSTRACT Whether physical activity has benefits against prostate cancer incidence or progression is unclear. Therefore, we assessed physical activity in relation to prostate cancer incidence, mortality, and Gleason histologic grade.
We used data from the Health Professionals Follow-up Study, a prospective cohort study, to determine the number of cases of incident, advanced (seminal vesicle invasion, metastasis, or fatal), fatal, and high-grade prostate cancer in a cohort of 47,620 US male health professionals, followed up from February 1, 1986, to January 31, 2000.
During 14 years of follow-up, we documented 2892 new cases of prostate cancer, including 482 advanced cases (280 of which were fatal). For total prostate cancer, no association was observed for total, vigorous, and nonvigorous physical activity. In men 65 years or older, we observed a lower risk in the highest category of vigorous activity for advanced (multivariable relative risk, 0.33; 95% confidence interval, 0.17-0.62, for more than 29 vs 0 metabolic equivalent hours) and for fatal (relative risk, 0.26; 95% confidence interval, 0.11-0.66) prostate cancer. No associations were observed in younger men. Differential screening by prostate-specific antigen or a reduction in physical activity due to undiagnosed prostate cancer did not appear to account for the results. Among cases, men with high levels of physical activity were less likely to be diagnosed with poorly differentiated cancers (Gleason grade > or = 7).
Although the mechanisms are not yet understood, these findings suggest that regular vigorous activity could slow the progression of prostate cancer and might be recommended to reduce mortality from prostate cancer, particularly given the many other documented benefits of exercise.
SourceAvailable from: Ali Mohammad Alizadeh[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Oxytocin (OT) is the first peptide hormone structurally assessed and chemically synthesized in biologically active form. This hormone acts as an important factor in human reproductive system particularly during pregnancy and lactation in women. So far, different therapeutic roles for OT have been identified as a spectrum from central and peripheral actions on male and female reproductive systems, circulatory system, musculoskeletal system, etc. Some in vitro and in vivo studies also revealed that OT is responsible for bivariate biological functions involved in cancer as following. By activating OT receptor in tumoral cells, OT enacts as a growth regulator, whether activator or inhibitor. Regarding the increase of OT in some conditions such as breastfeeding, exercise, and multiparity, we can relate the effect of these conditions on cancer with OT effects. Based on this hypothesis, we present a review on the effects of this neuropeptide on various types of cancer and also the influence of these conditions on the same cancer.European Journal of Pharmacology 08/2014; 741. DOI:10.1016/j.ejphar.2014.07.053 · 2.68 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Health communications can be an effective way to increase positive health behaviors and decrease negative health behaviors; however, those at highest risk are often most defensive and least open to such messages. For example, increasing physical activity among sedentary individuals affects a wide range of important mental and physical health outcomes, but has proven a challenging task. Affirming core values (i.e., self-affirmation) before message exposure is a psychological technique that can increase the effectiveness of a wide range of interventions in health and other domains; however, the neural mechanisms of affirmation's effects have not been studied. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to examine neural processes associated with affirmation effects during exposure to potentially threatening health messages. We focused on an a priori defined region of interest (ROI) in ventromedial prefrontal cortex (VMPFC), a brain region selected for its association with self-related processing and positive valuation. Consistent with our hypotheses, those in the self-affirmation condition produced more activity in VMPFC during exposure to health messages and went on to increase their objectively measured activity levels more. These findings suggest that affirmation of core values may exert its effects by allowing at-risk individuals to see the self-relevance and value in otherwise-threatening messages.Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 02/2015; DOI:10.1073/pnas.1500247112 · 9.81 Impact Factor